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824 Ergebnisse:

Assessing filtration rates of exotic bivalves: dependence on algae concentration and seasonal factors
Hydrobiologia (2016)
Jonathan Marescaux, Elodie Falisse, Julien Lorquet, Karine Van Doninck, Jean-Nicolas Beisel, Jean-Pierre Descy

Due to their high filtration rates, exotic freshwater bivalves remove suspended organic matter from the water column, transferring resources to the sediment and increasing water clarity, which alters ecosystems. While there is a considerable amount of data on filtration rate of exotic bivalves, comparison between species is often invalid due to the utilization of different protocols for assessing filtration in experimental conditions. In this study, we quantified and compared for the first time the filtration rates of the zebra and quagga mussels and of two invasive Corbicula lineages (forms R and S) as a function of chlorophyll a concentration and season. The highest filtration rate observed was for the zebra mussel in fall and at high algal biomass. The incipient limiting level (ILL), defined as the chlorophyll a concentration at which the maximum filtration rate is observed, was observed in spring and summer in Corbicula species, and in summer and fall in Dreissena species. Overall, filtration rates presented a large range of variation, depending on chlorophyll a and season. Overall, Corbicula form S was observed as the best adapted to low food concentration. Moreover, Corbicula can switch to pedal feeding which gives them a competitive advantage at low chlorophyll a concentrations.

Intensification of North Pacific intermediate water ventilation during the Younger Dryas
Geo-Marine Letters (2016)
Ken’ichi Ohkushi, Naoki Hara, Minoru Ikehara, Masao Uchida, Naokazu Ahagon

Modern North Pacific intermediate water (NPIW) is formed in the mixed water region where the Oyashio and Kuroshio currents meet. The source for cooling and freshening of NPIW is intermediate water in the Okhotsk Sea. The Okhotsk intermediate water outflows to the open Pacific, forming the Oyashio intermediate water by mixing with the subarctic gyre water. In the Oyashio region, the intermediate water originating from the Okhotsk Sea flows mainly at depths shallower than 500 m. On the other hand, ventilation of intermediate water in the subarctic Pacific during the deglaciation remains a topic of debate. In this study, foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C signatures were determined in a dated sediment core collected at 777 m water depth to evaluate the intensity and depth distribution of the source of NPIW since the last deglaciation in the Oyashio region. Benthic foraminiferal δ18O increased by 0.3–0.4‰ from the end of the Bølling/Ållerød warm episode to the Younger Dryas cold episode, suggesting intermediate water cooling. Consistent with this trend, benthic δ13C values point to decreased nutrient contents during the cold event. Conversely, benthic δ18O signatures from a nearby core site at a water depth of 1,366 m did not show such cooling. These results suggest that cold intermediate water originating from the north was actively ventilated at depths of at least 700–800 m, and possibly even 1,200 m during the Younger Dryas, implying that NPIW ventilation was thicker and deeper than under modern conditions
Schlagworte: C , O , ge , cc , MC

Magmatic Evolution of the Early Pliocene Etrüsk Stratovolcano, Eastern Anatolian Collision Zone, Turkey
Lithos (2016)
Vural Oyan, Mehmet Keskin, Vladimir A. Lebedev, Andrey V. Chugaev, Evgenii V. Sharkov

The Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, located in the northeast of Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia; Turkey), is one of the important volcanic centres in the Eastern Anatolian collision zone. Mt. Etrüsk overlies a widespread volcanic plateau, consisting of basaltic and hawaiitic lavas formed by fissure eruptions between 4.9–4.5 Ma. These basic lavas contain a phenocryst phase consisting of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Trace element ratio diagrams imply that these basic magmas were generated from a mantle that contained a clear subduction component that is related to the subducted sediments rather than fluids or altered oceanic crust. Results of the melting models on the basaltic plateau lavas indicate that there was a marked variation both in the mantle source mineralogy (i.e. the ratio of garnet peridotite to spinel peridotite in the source varies between 60/40 % and 40/60 %) and the degree of melting (i.e. F between 0.8–4 %). This can be explained by a model in which magmas were generated by partial melting of both metasomatised lithospheric and deeper asthenospheric mantle sources in an extensional setting in response to the partial delamination of the lithospheric mantle of Eastern Anatolia and then mixed with each other during Pliocene times. Central eruptions that formed the Etrüsk volcano lasted ~600 kyr between 4.3–3.7 Ma during Zanclean times. The estimated depth of the Etrüsk magma chamber is ~9–12 km. The volcano erupted lavas with a rather narrow compositional range from latite to rhyolite, which are either transitional or mildly alkaline in character. The Etrüsk lavas contain plagioclase, clino- and orthopyroxene, biotite, K-feldspar and rarely, minor amounts of olivine and amphibole in the phenocryst phase. A composite chemo-stratigraphic section of the volcano and petrological models indicate that the evolved lavas of the Etrüsk volcano differentiated from a parental magma composition, which is similar to that of the most primitive plateau basalt lavas underlying the volcano, via the AFC process, and experienced at least two major magma replenishment episodes at 4.1 Ma and 3.8 Ma during the magma chamber evolution.

Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate extracted from Early Cambrian phosphorite nodules: Implications for marine redox evolution in the Yangtze Platform
Journal of Earth Science (2016)
Wenlang Qiao, Xianguo Lang, Yongbo Peng, Kaiyuan Jiang, Wu Chen, Kangjun Huang, Bing Shen

Phosphorite nodule beds are discovered in the black shale of basal Niutitang Formation throughout the Yangtze Platform in South China, recording an important phosphorite-generation event. Platform-wide phosphorite precipitation requires special oceanographic and geochemical conditions, thus the origin of the Niutitang phosphorite nodules may provide valuable information about the ocean chemistry in the Early Cambrian. In this study, we measured sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of sulfate extracted from phosphorite nodules collected from the basal Niutitang Formation. Phosphorite associated sulfate (PAS) is a trace amount of sulfate that incorporates into crystal lattice during phosphorite precipitation, accordingly PAS records the geochemical signals during phosphorite nodule formation. Sulfur isotopic composition of PAS (δ34SPAS) ranges from -1.16‰ to +24.48‰ (mean=+8.19‰, n=11), and oxygen isotopic value (δ18OPAS) varies between -5.3‰ and +26.3‰ (mean=+7.0‰, n=8). Most phosphorite nodules have low δ34SPAS and low δ18OPAS values, suggesting PAS mainly derived from anaerobic oxidation of H2S within suboxic sediment porewater. We propose that phosphate was delivered to the Yangtze Platform by a series of upwelling events, and was scavenged from seawater with the precipitation of FeOOH. The absorbed phosphate was released into suboxic porewater by the reduction of FeOOH at the oxic-suboxic redox boundary in sediments, and phosphorite nodule precipitated by the reaction of phosphate with Ca2+ diffused from the overlying seawater. The platform-wide deposition of phosphorite nodules in the basal Niutitang Formation implies the bottom water might be suboxic or even oxic, at least sporadically, in Early Cambrian. We speculate that the intensified ocean circulation as evident with frequent occurrences of upwelling events might be the primary reason for the episodic oxidation of the Yangtze Platform in Early Cambrian.

Using Stable Isotopes to Infer the Impacts of Habitat Change on the Diets and Vertical Stratification of Frugivorous Bats in Madagascar
PLOS ONE (2016)
Kim E. Reuter, Abigail R. Wills, Raymond W. Lee, Erik E. Cordes, Brent J. Sewall

Human-modified habitats are expanding rapidly; many tropical countries have highly fragmented and degraded forests. Preserving biodiversity in these areas involves protecting species–like frugivorous bats–that are important to forest regeneration. Fruit bats provide critical ecosystem services including seed dispersal, but studies of how their diets are affected by habitat change have often been rather localized. This study used stable isotope analyses (δ15N and δ13C measurement) to examine how two fruit bat species in Madagascar, Pteropus rufus (n = 138) and Eidolon dupreanum (n = 52) are impacted by habitat change across a large spatial scale. Limited data for Rousettus madagascariensis are also presented. Our results indicated that the three species had broadly overlapping diets. Differences in diet were nonetheless detectable between P. rufus and E. dupreanum, and these diets shifted when they co-occurred, suggesting resource partitioning across habitats and vertical strata within the canopy to avoid competition. Changes in diet were correlated with a decrease in forest cover, though at a larger spatial scale in P. rufus than in E. dupreanum. These results suggest fruit bat species exhibit differing responses to habitat change, highlight the threats fruit bats face from habitat change, and clarify the spatial scales at which conservation efforts could be implemented.

Comparison of δ(13)C and δ(18)O from cellulose, whole wood, and resin-free whole wood from an old high elevation Pinus uncinata in the Spanish central Pyrenees.
Isotopes in environmental and health studies (2016)
Dana F C Riechelmann, Michael Maus, Willi Dindorf, Oliver Konter, Bernd R Schöne, Jan Esper

δ(13)C and δ(18)O values from sapwood of a single Pinus uncinata tree, from a high elevation site in the Spanish Pyrenees, were determined to evaluate the differences between whole wood and resin-free whole wood. This issue is addressed for the first time with P. uncinata over a 38-year long period. Results are also compared with published isotope values of α-cellulose samples from the same tree. The differences in δ(13)C and δ(18)O between whole wood and resin-free whole wood vary within the analytical uncertainty of 0.3 and 0.5 ‰, respectively, indicating that resin extraction is not necessary for sapwood of P. uncinata. Mean differences between cellulose and whole wood are 0.9 ‰ (δ(13)C) and 5.0 ‰ (δ(18)O), respectively. However, further analyses of different species and other sites are needed to evaluate whether the findings reported here are coherent more generally.

Using hydrogen isotopes of freshwater fish tissue as a tracer of provenance
Ecology and Evolution (2016)
David X. Soto, Keith A. Hobson, Leonard I. Wassenaar

Hydrogen isotope (δ2H) measurements of consumer tissues in aquatic food webs are useful tracers of diet and provenance and may be combined with δ13C and δ15N analyses to evaluate complex trophic relationships in aquatic systems. However, δ2H measurements of organic tissues are complicated by analytical issues (e.g., H exchangeability, lack of matrix-equivalent calibration standards, and lipid effects) and physiological mechanisms, such as H isotopic exchange with ambient water during protein synthesis and the influence of metabolic water. In this study, δ2H (and δ15N) values were obtained from fish muscle samples from Lake Winnipeg, Canada, 2007–2010, and were assessed for the effects of species, feeding habits, and ambient water δ2H values. After lipid removal, we used comparative equilibration to calibrate muscle δ2H values to nonexchangeable δ2H equivalents and controlled for H isotopic exchange between sample and laboratory ambient water vapor. We then examined the data for evidence of trophic δ2H enrichment by comparing δ2H values with δ15N values. Our results showed a significant logarithmic correlation between fork length and δ2H values, and no strong relationships between δ15N and δ2H. This suggests the so-called apparent trophic compounding effect and the influence of metabolic water into tissue H were the potential mechanisms for δ2H enrichment. We evaluated the importance of water in controlling δ2H values of fish tissues and, consequently, the potential of H isotopes as a tracer of provenance by taking account of confounding variables such as body size and trophic effects. The δ2H values of fish appear to be a good tracer for tracking provenance, and we present a protocol for the use of H isotopes in aquatic ecosystems, which should be applicable to a broad range of marine and freshwater fish species. We advise assessing size effects or working with fish of relatively similar mass when inferring fish movements using δ2H measurements.

The termination and aftermath of the Lomagundi-Jatuli carbon isotope excursions in the Paleoproterozoic Hutuo Group, North China
Journal of Earth Science (2016)
Zhenbing She, Fanyan Yang, Wei Liu, Luhua Xie, Yusheng Wan, Chao Li, Dominic Papineau

The Lomagundi-Jatuli Event (LJE) is one of the largest and earliest positive carbon isotope excursions preserving δ13Ccarb values between +5 and +16‰ in Paleoproterozoic carbonates worldwide. However, the duration, amplitude and patterns of these excursions remain poorly constrained. The 2.14–1.83 Ga Hutuo Group in the North China Craton is a >10 km thick volcano- sedimentary sequence, including >5 km thick well-preserved carbonates that were deposited in supra- tidal to sub-tidal environments. C-O isotopic and elemental analyses of 152 least altered samples of the carbonates revealed a three-stage δ13C evolution. It began with an exclusively positive δ13Ccarb (+1.3 to + 3.4‰) stage in the ~2.1 Ga carbonate in the Dashiling and Qingshicun Formations, followed by a transition from positive values to oscillating positive and negative values in ~3 000 m thick carbonates of the Wenshan, Hebiancun, Jianancun, and Daguandong Formations, and end with exclusively negative δ13Ccarb values preserved in > 500 m thick dolostones of the Huaiyincun and Beidaxing Formations. It appears that much of the LJE, particularly those extremely positive δ13Ccarb signals, was not recorded in the Hutuo carbonates. The exclusively positive δ13Ccarb values (+1.3 to + 3.4‰) preserved in the lower formations likely correspond to the end of the LJE, whereas the subsequent two stages reflect the aftermath of the LJE and the onset of Shunga-Francevillian event (SFE). The present data point to an increased influence of oxygen on the carbon cycle from the Doucun to the Dongye Subgroups and demonstrate that the termination of the LJE in the North China Craton is nearly simultaneous with those in Fennoscandia and South Africa.

Active layer hydrology in an Arctic tundra ecosystem: quantifying water sources and cycling using water stable isotopes
Hydrological Processes (2016)
Heather M. Throckmorton, Brent D. Newman, Jeffrey M. Heikoop, George B. Perkins, Xiahong Feng, David E. Graham, Daniel O'Malley, Velimir V. Vesselinov, Jessie Young, Stan D. Wullschleger, Cathy J. Wilson

Climate change and thawing permafrost in the arctic will significantly alter landscape hydro-geomorphology and the distribution of soil moisture, which will have cascading effects on climate feedbacks (CO2 and CH4), and plant and microbial communities. Fundamental processes critical to predicting active layer hydrology are not well understood. This study applied water stable isotope techniques (δ2H and δ18O) to infer sources and mixing of active layer waters in a polygonal tundra landscape in Barrow, Alaska (USA) in August and September of 2012. Results suggested that winter precipitation did not contribute substantially to surface waters or subsurface active layer pore waters measured in August and September. Summer rain was the main source of water to the active layer, with seasonal ice-melt contributing to deeper pore waters later in the season. Surface water evaporation was evident in August from a characteristic isotopic fractionation slope (δ2H versus δ18O). Freeze-out isotopic fractionation effects in frozen active layer samples and textural permafrost were indistinguishable from evaporation fractionation, emphasizing the importance of considering the most likely processes in water isotope studies, in systems where both evaporation and freeze-out occur in close proximity. The fractionation observed in frozen active layer ice was not observed in liquid active layer pore waters. Such a discrepancy between frozen and liquid active layer samples suggests mixing of melt water, likely due to slow melting of seasonal ice. This research provides insight into fundamental processes relating to sources and mixing of active layer waters, which should be considered in process-based fine and intermediate scale hydrologic models
Schlagworte: H , O , ge , cc , GH

Roles of forest bioproductivity, transpiration and fire in a nine-year record of cave dripwater chemistry from southwest Australia
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2016)
P.C. Treble, I.J. Fairchild, A. Baker, K.T. Meredith, M.S. Andersen, S.U. Salmon, C. Bradley, P.M. Wynn, Stuart Hankin, A. Wood, E. McGuire

Forest biomass has the potential to significantly impact the chemistry and volume of diffuse recharge to cave dripwater via the processes of nutrient uptake, transpiration and forest fire. Yet to-date, this role has been under-appreciated in the interpretation of speleothem trace element records from forested catchments. In this study, the impact of vegetation is examined and quantified in a long-term monitoring program from Golgotha Cave, SW Australia. The contribution of salts from rain and dry-deposition of aerosols and dissolved elements from soil mineral and bedrock dissolution to dripwater chemistry are also examined. This study is an essential pre-requisite for the future interpretation of trace element data from SW Australian stalagmite records, whose record of past environmental change will include alterations in these biogeochemical fluxes. Solute concentrations in dripwater vary spatially, supporting the existence of distinct flow paths governed by varying amounts of transpiration as well as nutrient uptake by deeply-rooted biomass. Applying principal components analysis, we identify a common pattern of variation in dripwater Cl, Mg, K, Ca, Sr and Si, interpreted as reflecting increasing transpiration, due to forest growth. Mass-balance calculations show that increasing elemental sequestration into biomass has the largest impact on SO4, providing an explanation for the overall falling dripwater SO4 concentrations through time, in contrast to the transpiration-driven rising trend dominating other ions. The long-term rise in transpiration and nutrient uptake driven by increased forest bioproductivity and its impact on our dripwater chemistry is attributed to i. the post-fire recovery of the forest understorey after fire impacted the site in 2006 CE; ii. and/or increased water and nutrient demand as trees in the overlying forest mature. The impact of climate-driven changes on the water balance is also examined. Finally, the implications for interpreting SW Australian speleothem trace element records are discussed.