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824 Ergebnisse:

Determination of the safety of leucine supplementation in healthy elderly men.
Amino acids (2016)
Betina Rasmussen, Erin Gilbert, Abrar Turki, Kenneth Madden, Rajavel Elango

Leucine, a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), has been shown to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and thus has been proposed to prevent age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia). Therefore, leucine supplementation may have potential benefits in elderly populations to preserve muscle mass. The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for leucine intake in young men has recently been determined to be 500 mg kg(-1) day(-1), and increases in blood ammonia concentrations were seen at intake levels above 500 mg kg(-1) day(-1); the UL for leucine in elderly is unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the safety of leucine supplementation in healthy elderly men. Six healthy elderly men (72.2 ± 3.5 years) received graded stepwise increases in leucine intakes ranging from 50 to 750 mg kg(-1) day(-1), on eight separate study days. Plasma and urinary biochemical variables, including blood ammonia, and an oral primed-continuous protocol of L-1-(13)C-Leucine was performed. Blood ammonia concentrations above normal values (35 µmol/L) were observed at leucine intakes >550 mg kg(-1) day(-1). Leucine oxidation measured as a F(13)CO2 (rate of label tracer oxidation) increased with increasing leucine intakes and started to plateau after 450 mg kg(-1) day(-1). Two-phased linear regression analysis of the F(13)CO2 data revealed a breakpoint of 431 mg kg(-1) day(-1) (R (2) = 0.73), suggesting that the upper limit to oxidize leucine was reached at that point. Taking the data together the upper limit for leucine intake in healthy elderly could be set similar to young men at 500 mg kg(-1) day(-1) or ~35 g/day for an individual weighing 70 kg.

Nanoscale relationships between uranium and carbonaceous material in alteration halos around unconformity-related uranium deposits of the Kiggavik camp, Paleoproterozoic Thelon Basin, Nunavut, Canada
Ore Geology Reviews (2016)
Thomas Riegler, Marie-France Beaufort, Thierry Allard, Anne-Catherine Pierson-Wickmann, Daniel Beaufort

Concentrations of 7% U and 1% Cu were identified in massive, brecciated, and amorphous carbonaceous materials (CM) characterized by strongly negative values of carbon stable isotopes (δ13C=−39.1‰ relative to PDB). The anomalies are restricted to clay alteration halos developed in Neoarchean Woodburn Lake group metagreywacke that is the predominant host of unconformity-related uranium (U) deposits in the Kiggavik exploration camp. Petrographic and microstructural analyses by SEM, X-Ray Diffraction, HR-TEM and RAMAN spectroscopy identified carbon veils, best described as graphene-like carbon, upon which nano-scale uraninite crystals are distributed. CM are common in U systems such as the classic Cretaceous roll-front deposits and the world-class Paleoproterozoic unconformity-related deposits. However, the unusual spatial and textural association of U minerals and CM described herein raises questions on mechanisms that may have been responsible for the precipitation of the CM followed by crystallization of U oxides on its surfaces. Based on the characteristics presented herein, the CMs at Kiggavik are interpreted as hydrothermal in origin. Furthermore, the nanoscale organization and properties of these graphene-like layers that host U oxide crystallites clearly localized U oxide nucleation and growth.

North Atlantic forcing of moisture delivery to Europe throughout the Holocene.
Scientific reports (2016)
Andrew C Smith, Peter M Wynn, Philip A Barker, Melanie J Leng, Stephen R Noble, Wlodek Tych

Century-to-millennial scale fluctuations in precipitation and temperature are an established feature of European Holocene climates. Changes in moisture delivery are driven by complex interactions between ocean moisture sources and atmospheric circulation modes, making it difficult to resolve the drivers behind millennial scale variability in European precipitation. Here, we present two overlapping decadal resolution speleothem oxygen isotope (δ(18)O) records from a cave on the Atlantic coastline of northern Iberia, covering the period 12.1-0 ka. Speleothem δ(18)O reveals nine quasi-cyclical events of relatively wet-to-dry climatic conditions during the Holocene. Dynamic Harmonic Regression modelling indicates that changes in precipitation occurred with a ~1500 year frequency during the late Holocene and at a shorter length during the early Holocene. The timing of these cycles coincides with changes in North Atlantic Ocean conditions, indicating a connectivity between ocean conditions and Holocene moisture delivery. Early Holocene climate is potentially dominated by freshwater outburst events, whilst ~1500 year cycles in the late Holocene are more likely driven by changes internal to the ocean system. This is the first continental record of its type that clearly demonstrates millennial scale connectivity between the pulse of the ocean and precipitation over Europe through the entirety of the Holocene.

Carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation during methanogenesis: A laboratory study using coal and formation water
International Journal of Coal Geology (2016)
Rita Susilawati, Suzanne D. Golding, Kim A. Baublys, Joan S. Esterle, Stephanie K. Hamilton

Carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions of CH4 generated via methanogenesis in cultures of South Sumatra Basin (SSB) coalbed methane (CBM) formation waters grown on coal, acetate and H2+CO2 were investigated. CH4 production and molecular analysis confirmed the presence of active microbial communities that are able to convert coal into CH4 using both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic pathways. The representative bacterial sequences were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Deltaproteobacteria, while Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina were the most prevalent archaeal methanogens present in the cultures. CH4 produced in this study's culturing experiments has δ13C values in the range of −50‰ to −20‰, with most values falling outside the current understanding of the carbon isotopic boundaries for biogenic CH4 (−110‰ to −30‰). However, the corresponding apparent carbon isotopic α factor (αc=1.02±0.006), and isotopic effect (εc=−20.1‰±15.3) showed that CH4 in SSB cultures was predominantly produced by acetoclastic methanogenesis, which is consistent with the results of molecular DNA analysis. In addition, the calculated contribution of CO2 reduction from the δ13C values of coal-treated cultures was overall <50%, further confirming the high contribution of the acetoclastic pathway to CH4 production in the SSB cultures. The outcome of this experimental study also suggests that δ2H-CH4 values may not provide a reliable basis for distinguishing methanogenic pathways, while apparent carbon isotopic fractionation factor (αc) and isotope effect (εc) are considered more useful indicators of the methanogenic pathway. The high δ13C-CH4 values (≥30‰) and the dominance of Methanosaeta over Methanosarcina indicate that methanogens within the SSB cultures were operating at low substrate concentrations. An unusually positive δ13C-CH4 suggests a substrate depletion effect, which is thought to be related to a decrease in the relative abundance of key bacterial coal degraders with formation water inoculum storage time. Closer observation of δ13C-CH4 values during the growth of cultures within a single experiment also showed a 13C-enrichment trend over time. At log phase of growth, the CH4 produced was 13C-depleted when compared to the stationary phase that also indicates substrate depletion effects. Finally, the δ13C-CH4 values encountered in this study (as high as −20‰) highlight the possible positive extension of δ13C-CH4 values of acetoclastic methanogenesis from those currently reported in the literature for natural and experimental samples (as high as −30‰).

Exploring the structural controls on helium, nitrogen and carbon isotope signatures in hydrothermal fluids along an intra-arc fault system
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2016)
Daniele Tardani, Martin Reich, Emilie Roulleau, Naoto Takahata, Yuji Sano, Pamela Peréz-Flóres, Pablo Sánchez, José Cembrano, Gloria Arancibia

There is a general agreement that fault-fracture meshes exert a primary control on fluid flow in both volcanic/magmatic and geothermal/hydrothermal systems. For example, in geothermal systems and epithermal gold deposits, optimally oriented faults and fractures play a key role in promoting fluid flow through high vertical permeability pathways. In the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) of the Chilean Andes, both volcanism and hydrothermal activity are strongly controlled by the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS), an intra-arc, strike-slip fault, and by the Arc-oblique Long-lived Basement Fault System (ALFS), a set of transpressive NW-striking faults. However, the role that principal and subsidiary fault systems exert on magma degassing, hydrothermal fluid flow and fluid compositions remains poorly constrained. In this study we report new helium, carbon and nitrogen isotope data (3He/4He, δ13C-CO2 and δ15N) of a suite of fumarole and hot spring gas samples from 23 volcanic/geothermal localities that are spatially associated with either the LOFS or the ALFS in the central part of the SVZ. The dataset is characterized by a wide range of 3He/4He ratios (3.39 Ra to 7.53 Ra, where Ra=(3He/4He)air), δ13C-CO2 values (−7.44‰ to −49.41‰) and δ15N values (0.02‰ to 4.93‰). The regional variations in 3He/4He, δ13C-CO2 and δ15N values are remarkably consistent with those reported for 87Sr/86Sr in lavas along the studied segment, which are strongly controlled by the regional spatial distribution of faults. Two fumaroles gas samples associated with the northern “horsetail” transtensional termination of the LOFS are the only datapoints showing uncontaminated MORB-like 3He/4He signatures. In contrast, the dominant mechanism controlling helium isotope ratios of hydrothermal systems towards the south appears to be the mixing between mantle-derived helium and a radiogenic component derived from, e.g., magmatic assimilation of 4He-rich country rocks or contamination during the passage of the fluids through the upper crust. The degree of 4He contamination is strictly related with the faults controlling the occurrence of volcanic and geothermal systems, with the most contaminated values associated with NW-striking structures. This is confirmed by δ15N values that show increased mixing with crustal sediments and meteoric waters along NW faults (AFLS), while δ13C-CO2 data are indicative of cooling and mixing driving calcite precipitation due to increased residence times along such structures. Our results show that the structural setting of the region exerts a fist-order control on hydrothermal fluid composition by conditioning residence times of magmas and thus promoting cooling/mixing of magmatic vapor, and therefore, must be taken into consideration for further geochemical interpretations.

CO2 outburst events in relation to seismicity: constraints from microscale geochronology, geochemistry of late Quaternary vein carbonates, SW Turkey
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2016)
Ezgi Ünal-İmer, I. Tonguç Uysal, Jian-Xin Zhao, Veysel Işık, James Shulmeister, Ali İmer, Yue-Xing Feng

Vein and breccia carbonates precipitated in a highly fractured/faulted carbonate bedrock in SW Turkey were investigated through high-resolution U-series geochronology, microstructural and geochemical studies including C-O-Sr isotope and rare-earth element and yttrium (REY) analyses. Petrographical observations and geochronological data are interpreted as evidence that the calcite veins formed through a crack-seal mechanism, mostly accompanied/initiated by intensive hydraulic fracturing of the host limestone in response to high-pressure fluids, which is manifested by multi-stage breccia deposits. Microscale U-series dates (272.6–20.5 kyr) and geochemical compositions of the vein/breccia samples provide information on the timing and mechanism of the vein formation and identify the source of CO2-bearing fluids responsible for the carbonate precipitation. δ18OVPDB and δ13CVPDB values of the calcite veins range between -5.9 and -1.7‰, and -10.6 and -4.6‰, respectively. The isotopic compositions of the veins show highly fluctuating values as calcite grew successively perpendicular to vein walls, which, in combination with microstructural and geochronological constraints, are interpreted to reflect episodic CO2 degassing events associated with seismic and aseismic deformation. Oxygen and Sr isotope compositions (δ18OVPDB: -5.9 to -1.7‰; 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7082 to 0.7085) together with REY concentrations indicate deep infiltration of meteoric waters with various degrees of interactions mostly with the host limestone and siliciclastic parts of the basement rocks. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions suggest CO2 degassing through intensive limestone dissolution. While majority of the veins display similar Post-Archaean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized REY variations, some of the veins show positive EuPAAS anomalies, which could be indicative of contributions from a deeply derived, heated, and reduced fluid component, giving rise to multiple fluid sources for the calcite veins. Vein calcite formed in fault-induced fractures offer insights into structural features, genetic characterization of the parental fluids, and late Quaternary degassing of subsurface CO2 accumulations.

Plant-derived compounds stimulate the decomposition of organic matter in arctic permafrost soils.
Scientific reports (2016)
Birgit Wild, Norman Gentsch, Petr Čapek, Kateřina Diáková, Ricardo J Eloy Alves, Jiři Bárta, Antje Gittel, Gustaf Hugelius, Anna Knoltsch, Peter Kuhry, Nikolay Lashchinskiy, Robert Mikutta, Juri Palmtag, Christa Schleper, Jörg Schnecker, Olga Shibistova,

Arctic ecosystems are warming rapidly, which is expected to promote soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. In addition to the direct warming effect, decomposition can also be indirectly stimulated via increased plant productivity and plant-soil C allocation, and this so called "priming effect" might significantly alter the ecosystem C balance. In this study, we provide first mechanistic insights into the susceptibility of SOM decomposition in arctic permafrost soils to priming. By comparing 119 soils from four locations across the Siberian Arctic that cover all horizons of active layer and upper permafrost, we found that an increased availability of plant-derived organic C particularly stimulated decomposition in subsoil horizons where most of the arctic soil carbon is located. Considering the 1,035 Pg of arctic soil carbon, such an additional stimulation of decomposition beyond the direct temperature effect can accelerate net ecosystem C losses, and amplify the positive feedback to global warming.

Experimental Agriculture (2016)

Selecting high-yielding cultivars under drought is an important practice to improve crop production. Canopy temperature (T) shows a relative reliable association with grain yield. In this study, we compared the suitability of canopy T and other agronomic as well as physiological traits associated with grain yield under different water regimes. Field experiments over two seasons (2011–2012 and 2012–2013) were carried out under three water regimes, represented about 64, 76 and 89% of potential evapotranspiration, with 16 local winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in each season. Results showed that cultivars with higher yield usually performed consistently lower canopy T under three water regimes, while the relationships of grain yield with other agronomic or physiological traits were more influenced by soil moisture. In addition, the relationship between canopy T and grain yield varied with different growth stages: From the time of heading to early grain filling stages, a more significant negative linear relationship (p < 0.001) existed under the three irrigation levels.

Validity of body mass index in determining prevalence of overweight and obesity among Syrian late adolescents boys
The Social Science Journal (2016)
Mahfouz. Al-Bachir, Ibrahim Othman

Obesity is rising among adults and children worldwide, including populations living in developing countries. The published data related to Syria are insufficient to address this issue. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and to determine appropriate cut-off points of the body mass index (BMI) for defining overweight and obesity among Syrian adolescents. We record body weight (kg), height (m2), and body mass index (kg/m2). The total body fat mass (BFM) was determined by deuterium oxide dilution (DD). The total sample was used in a split-sample internal cross-validation. The BMI was integrated to multiple regressions and Bland and Altman's procedure was used to analyze the data. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was drawn to determine appropriate cut-off points of the BMI for defining overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 24.5% by BMI and 46.5% by body fat content. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis defined a BMI of 22.34kg/m2 as a cut-off for overweight with sensitivity of 84.0%, 80.9% specificity, and BMI of 24.71kg/m2 with 82.80% sensitivity and 93.0% specificity for obesity. The results of our study suggest lower BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity in Syrian population than those of recommended by WHO.

Precipitation isoscapes for New Zealand: enhanced temporal detail using precipitation-weighted daily climatology.
Isotopes in environmental and health studies (2016)
W Troy Baisden, Elizabeth D Keller, Robert Van Hale, Russell D Frew, Leonard I Wassenaar

Predictive understanding of precipitation δ(2)H and δ(18)O in New Zealand faces unique challenges, including high spatial variability in precipitation amounts, alternation between subtropical and sub-Antarctic precipitation sources, and a compressed latitudinal range of 34 to 47 °S. To map the precipitation isotope ratios across New Zealand, three years of integrated monthly precipitation samples were acquired from >50 stations. Conventional mean-annual precipitation δ(2)H and δ(18)O maps were produced by regressions using geographic and annual climate variables. Incomplete data and short-term variation in climate and precipitation sources limited the utility of this approach. We overcome these difficulties by calculating precipitation-weighted monthly climate parameters using national 5-km-gridded daily climate data. This data plus geographic variables were regressed to predict δ(2)H, δ(18)O, and d-excess at all sites. The procedure yields statistically-valid predictions of the isotope composition of precipitation (long-term average root mean square error (RMSE) for δ(18)O = 0.6 ‰; δ(2)H = 5.5 ‰); and monthly RMSE δ(18)O = 1.9 ‰, δ(2)H = 16 ‰. This approach has substantial benefits for studies that require the isotope composition of precipitation during specific time intervals, and may be further improved by comparison to daily and event-based precipitation samples as well as the use of back-trajectory calculations.