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824 Ergebnisse:

Artificial remodelling of alternative electron flow by flavodiiron proteins in Arabidopsis
Nature Plants (2016)
Hiroshi Yamamoto, Shunichi Takahashi, Murray R. Badger, Toshiharu Shikanai

Nitrogen Fertigation Rates Affect Stored Nitrogen, Growth, and Blooming in Iris germanica 'Immortality
HortScience (2016)
Xiaojie Zhao, Guihong Bi, Richard L. Harkess, Jac J. Varco, Tongyin Li, Eugene K. Blythe

Tall bearded (TB) iris (Iris germanica L.) has great potential as a specialty cut flower due to its fragrance and showy, multicolor display; however, limited research has been reported on optimal nitrogen (N) nutrient management for TB iris. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of N fertilizer rate on plant growth and flowering of Immortality iris and determine the influence of both stored N and spring-applied N fertilizer on spring growth and flowering. On 14 Mar. 2012, rhizomes of Immortality iris were potted in a commercial substrate with no starter fertilizer. Plants were fertigated with 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 mM N from NH4NO3 twice per week from 28 Mar. to 28 Sept. 2012. In 2013, half of the plants from each of the 2012 N rate were supplied with either 0 or 10 mM N from 15NH415NO3 twice per week from 25 Mar. to 7 May 2013. Growth and flowering data including plant height, leaf SPAD, number of fans and inflorescence stems, and length of inflorescence stem were collected during the growing season. Plants were harvested in Dec. 2012 and May 2013 to measure dry weight and N concentration in leaves, roots, and rhizomes. Results showed higher 2012 N rates increased plant height, leaf SPAD reading, and number of inflorescence stems at first and second blooming in 2012. Greater 2012 N rates also increased plant dry weight and N content in all structures, and N concentration in roots and rhizomes. Rhizomes (58.8% to 66.3% of total N) were the dominant sink for N in Dec. 2012. Higher 2012 N rates increased plant height, number of fans, and the number of inflorescence stems at spring bloom in 2013. In May 2013, N in leaf tissue constituted the majority (51% to 64.3%) of the total plant N. Higher 2012 N rates increased total dry weight, N concentration, and N content in all 2013 15N rates; however, leaf dry weight in all plants was improved by 2013 15N rate. Percentage of tissue N derived from 2013 15N (NDFF) decreased with increasing 2012 N rate. New spring leaves were the dominant sink (56.8% to 72.2%) for 2013 applied 15N. In summary, Immortality iris is capable of a second blooming in a growing season, this second blooming dependent on N fertilization rate in current year. A relatively high N rate is recommended to produce a second bloom.

Enhanced transfer of biologically fixed N from faba bean to intercropped wheat through mycorrhizal symbiosis
Applied Soil Ecology (2016)
Sanâa Wahbi, Tasnime Maghraoui, Mohamed Hafidi, Hervé Sanguin, Khalid Oufdou, Yves Prin, Robin Duponnois, Antoine Galiana

In Morocco, the use of seed legumes is limited because significant water deficits and the low availability of soil phosphorus (P) limit nitrogen fixation. However, little is known about the ability of faba bean-rhizobium symbiosis to fix nitrogen in P-deficient soils and to transfer fixed nitrogen (N) to intercropped wheat. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) and their extraradical hyphae networks play an important role in the facilitation process by promoting interconnectivity and the transfer of nutrients, such as N and P, between associated plants. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of AM inoculation on N2 fixation and the transfer of fixed N from faba bean to intercropped wheat. Germinated faba bean and wheat seeds were transferred into 1–l pots filled with a P-deficient soil that was collected from the Haouz valley near Marrakech (Morocco). Plants from the two species were grown in pots in either pure or mixed stands under greenhouse conditions, and each cropping system was subjected to three mycorrhizal inoculation treatments with a non-inoculated (AM0) and two concentrations of Rhizophagus irregularis inoculants containing 1000 (AM1) or 2000 (AM2) spores pot−1. The 15N isotope dilution method was used to determine the amount and proportion of atmospheric N fixed by faba bean (Ndfa%) and the fixed N that was transferred to wheat. Mycorrhizal inoculation had a significantly positive effect on the shoot dry weights and total shoot N in faba bean, but not in wheat. The cropping system had no significant effect on the plant growth and total shoot N in both faba bean and wheat. The Ndfa percentage was very high in all of the treatments, varying from 86 to 91%. The total N fixed by faba bean was 27% significantly higher in the AM2 treatment compared with the AM1 and AM0 treatments for both cropping systems combined. The estimated proportions of fixed N that were transferred from faba bean to wheat were far higher in AM1 (50%) and AM2 (32%) treatments than in AM0 (15%) treatment as well as for the total transferred fixed N. As corroborated by a parallel observation of root mycorrhizal colonization, these results suggest that the development of mycorrhizal networks stimulates the transfer of fixed N from faba bean to wheat, which could significantly contribute to the facilitation process under intercropping conditions.
Schlagworte: N , soi , EA

Combination of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio and light stable isotopic values (δ13C, δ15N and δD) for identifying the geographical origin of winter wheat in China
Food Chemistry (2016)
Hongyan Liu, Yimin Wei, Hai Lu, Shuai Wei, Tao Jiang, Yingquan Zhang, Boli Guo

This study aims to investigate whether isotopic signatures can be used to develop reliable fingerprints for discriminating the geographical origin of Chinese winter wheat, and to evaluate the discrimination effects of δ13C, δ15N and δD, alone or with 87Sr/86Sr. In this study, the values of δ13C, δ15N and δD, and the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of wheat and provenance soils from three regions were determined. Significant differences were found in all parameters of wheat and 87Sr/86Sr in soil extract (reflecting the bioavailable fraction of soil) among different regions. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of wheat and soil extracts. An overall correct classification rate of 77.8% was obtained for discriminating wheat from three regions based on light stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, and δD). The correct classification rate of 98.1% could be obtained with the combination of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio and the light stable isotopic values.
Schlagworte: C , H , N , fo , EA

Stable oxygen isotope signatures of early season wood in New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) tree rings: Prospects for palaeoclimate reconstruction
Dendrochronologia (2016)
Andrew M. Lorrey, Tom H. Brookman, Michael N. Evans, Nicolas C. Fauchereau, Cate Macinnis-Ng, Margaret M. Barbour, Alison Criscitiello, Greg Eischeid, Anthony M. Fowler, Travis W. Horton, Daniel P. Schrag

One of the longest Southern Hemisphere tree ring chronologies that has potential to provide past climate reconstructions has been produced using New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis). Work to date on kauri has been limited to reconstructions from whole-ring width analysis. In this study, we present the first replicated stable oxygen isotopic composition of early season alpha-cellulose from calendar-dated kauri tree rings within the natural growth range of the species. We also use newly established kauri physiology information about stomatal conductance and a mechanistic model to place initial interpretations on kauri δ18O signatures. Kauri early season δ18O has a range from 26 to 34‰ (V-SMOW) for a site located at Lower Huia Dam in west Auckland, and the mean δ18O chronology from that site is significantly correlated (p<0.05) to October-December vapor pressure, May-December relative humidity and other associated hydroclimatic variables. The observed statistical relationships are consistent with mechanistic δ18O simulations using the forward model of Barbour et al. (2004) that incorporates a leaf temperature energy balance model to calculate transpiration as forced with local meteorological variables and a range of physiological parameters. The correlation results and mechanistic model simulations suggest kauri δ18O early season wood has the potential to provide new quantitative past climate information for northern New Zealand, and also complement whole ring-width reconstructions of past regional climate variability – a component of which is previously established as sensitive to El Niño-Southern Oscillation activity. Additional work is required to determine whether the observed relationships are consistent across the growth range of kauri and what the optimum sample depth is before long isotope-based palaeoclimate reconstructions from modern and sub-fossil kauri sites are undertaken.

ENSO variability around 2000 years ago recorded by Tridacna gigas δ18O from the South China Sea
Quaternary International (2016)
Hong Yan, Chengcheng Liu, Wenchao Zhang, Ming Li, Xufeng Zheng, Gangjian Wei, Louhua Xie, Wenfeng Deng, Liguang Sun

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most important mode of interannual changes in global climate. The knowledge of ENSO variability in different mean climate conditions is essential for us to understand the ENSO mechanism and predict its future trend in a warming world. Here we present a 50-year-long, monthly resolved oxygen isotope record, obtained from a 14C dated (AD 50 ± 40) fossil giant clam, Tridacna gigas, located on Dongdao Island, South China Sea, where the interannual climate anomaly is dominated by ENSO variations. We developed a quantitative method to extract the ENSO events from the regional Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and oxygen isotope records. And then, the ENSO variations about 2000 years ago, located in the so called Roman Warm Period, was calculated from the oxygen isotope series of fossil T. gigas. Our quantitative record shows that ENSO variance in Roman times was similar to the instrumental times, with a total of 11 El Niño events and 12 La Niña events within 50 years.

Response of soil organic carbon to land-use change in central Brazil: a large-scale comparison of Ferralsols and Acrisols
Plant and Soil (2016)
S. Strey, J. Boy, R. Strey, O. Weber, G. Guggenberger

Assessing the trophic position of two sharks from the open waters of the southeastern Pacific Ocean.
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research (2016)
Sebastian A.; Cornejo Klarian

Stable isotope analyses for shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) and blue sharks (Prionace glauca) were conducted to assess their trophic position in two periods of time (before 1980 and after 2000) in the Southeastern Pacific waters (SEP). Both sharks showed that their trophic position decreased over time (P < 0.05). Many factors could be involved in this change such as dietary shifts, prey availability, or indirect fishing effects in SEP waters

Vertical distribution of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in topsoils across a temperate rainforest dune chronosequence in New Zealand
Biogeochemistry (2016)
Melanie Brunn, Leo Condron, Andrew Wells, Sandra Spielvogel, Yvonne Oelmann

Sedimentary organic matter record of Early Cretaceous environmental changes in western Liaoning Province, NE China
Organic Geochemistry (2016)
Yan Li, Zhiguang Song, Xin-xing Cao, Simon C. George

The abundance and composition of organic matter and the δ13C compositions of some specific individual compounds were analysed in sediments collected from an excavated profile of the Early Cretaceous Yi-xian Formation in Liaoning Province, NE China, in order to provide organic geochemical information on palaeoclimate and environmental changes. The distribution of n-alkanes varies steadily through the profile, with long-chain n-alkanes dominating in the lower and upper sections, and medium chain-length n-alkanes dominating in the middle section of the profile. The δ13C values of n-alkanes, hopanes and steranes show similar upward positive trends through the profile, suggesting that these compounds originated from the same source material and also reflect consistent changes in the environment of the sedimentary basin. The C24 17,21-secohopane was only detected in the lower and middle sections of the profile and has a more positive carbon isotopic composition by about 3.7–6.7‰ than that of associated n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes and C30 8,14-secohopane. This implies that the C24 17,21-secohopane had a different origin, possibly connected with the volcanic ash deposits and massive vertebrate remains. Reconstruction of the δ13C composition of atmospheric CO2 based on plant-derived C29 and C31 n-alkanes shows a change from –10‰ to –3‰ from the bottom to the middle of the profile. This upward positive excursion through the profile is consistent with the worldwide variation of atmospheric CO2 during the Early Cretaceous and indicates an upward warming trend, likely related to globally intensified volcanic activity.