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824 Ergebnisse:

The adoption of pottery by north-east European hunter-gatherers: Evidence from lipid residue analysis
Journal of Archaeological Science (2017)
Ester Oras, Alexandre Lucquin, Lembi Lõugas, Mari Tõrv, Aivar Kriiska, Oliver E. Craig

Pottery was adopted by hunter-gatherers in the Eastern Baltic at the end of the 6th millennium cal BC. To examine the motivations for this cultural and technological shift, here we report the organic residue analysis of ceramic vessels from the earliest pottery horizon (Narva) in this region. A combined approach using GC-MS, GC-C-IRMS and bulk IRMS of residues absorbed into the ceramic and charred surface deposits was employed. The results show that despite variable preservation, Narva ceramic vessels were preferentially used for processing aquatic products. We argue that pottery was part of a new Late Mesolithic subsistence strategy which included more intensive exploitation of aquatic foods and may have had important implications, such as increased sedentism and population growth.

Interactive effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield, nitrogen uptake, and recovery of two successive Chinese cabbage crops as assessed using 15N isotope
Scientia Horticulturae (2017)
Na Gao, Yu Liu, Hanqing Wu, Peng Zhang, Na Yu, Yuling Zhang, Hongtao Zou, Qingfeng Fan, Yulong Zhang

The aim of this study was to evaluate the interactive effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on yield, nitrogen (N) uptake, and recovery of two successive Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) crops and to assess the residue effects of N on the 2nd season crop under greenhouse conditions. 15N-labeled urea was administered to pot-grown Chinese cabbage in the 1st season. The cabbage plants were subjected to three irrigation treatments, 60 (W1), 75 (W2), and 90% (W3) of the soil field capacity, and four N rates, 0 (N0), 0.1 (N1), 0.2 (N2), and 0.3 (N3) g N kg−1 soil. The highest yield, dry matter (DM), N uptake, %Ndff (the percentage of N derived from fertilizer), N recovery rate, and the lowest loss rate were recorded in W3 treatment. N1 treatment had the maximum values for yield, DM, N recovery rate, and the lowest N loss rate. The highest %Ndff was recorded in N2 treatment, with no significant difference observed compared to N3 treatment in the 1st season. In addition, no significant difference among the N rates was observed in the 2nd season. Besides, roots exhibited higher %Ndff values than leaves. Only 5.30–23.00% fertilizer was absorbed by the Chinese cabbage, 56.22–71.29% remained in the soil, and 13.17–37.10% was presumably lost in the 1st season. The recovery rate in the 2nd season was approximately 3.51–17.40%. Therefore, in terms of yield, nitrogen recovery, and environmental impact, W3N1 treatment was recommended as the best combination for Chinese cabbage production and this treatment showed a productive potential in the 2nd season, as well.

Human diets during the social transition from territorial states to empire: Stable isotope analysis of human and animal remains from 770BCE to 220CE on the Central Plains of China
Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports (2017)
Ligang Zhou, Sandra J. Garvie-Lok, Wenquan Fan, Xiaolong Chu

Chinese history from the Eastern Zhou to the Han Dynasty (770BCE to 220CE) witnessed a social transition from conflicting territorial states to a prosperous empire. This study investigates the effects of social changes on human diet using stable isotope analysis. Human remains (n=134) and contemporary faunal remains (n=14) from three sites located on the Central Plains of China were analyzed, and the results have shed light on human diets in the two different eras. Most individuals of the Eastern Zhou had diets based on millet and a limited amount of animal protein. The poor ate a significant amount of wheat, which may have been a response to the food pressures of their urban environment. Wheat consumption in the Han Dynasty increased significantly, likely in response to a population increase during the early imperial period, and patterns of animal protein consumption also differed from that of the Eastern Zhou. Status-related dietary variation in the two eras was reflected in the amount of wheat eaten rather than animal protein consumption. The dietary changes seen likely reflect both adaptive strategy and active change, and seem to have benefited human health in the following dynasties. The results also indicate that significant wheat consumption started in the lowest social classes, suggesting a bottom-up mode for the adoption of wheat into human diets of the area.

Geographical discrimination of extra-virgin olive oils from the Italian coasts by combining stable isotope data and carotenoid content within a multivariate analysis
Food Chemistry (2017)
S. Portarena, C. Baldacchini, E. Brugnoli

We have determined the isotopic composition and the carotenoid contents of 38 extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from seven regions along the Italian coasts, by means of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RRS), respectively. The application of linear discriminant analysis to our overall results demonstrated the combination of isotope and carotenoid data is a promising method to discriminate EVOOs from production sites that are impacted by similar geographical and climatic parameters. In particular, this dual approach allowed correct classification of 82% EVOO samples, while separate IRMS and RRS investigations were able to discriminate only samples from Sicily and Latium, respectively.
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Fate of 13C labelled root and shoot residues in soil and anecic earthworm casts: A mesocosm experiment
Geoderma (2017)
A. Vidal, K. Quenea, M. Alexis, T.T. Nguyen Tu, J. Mathieu, V. Vaury, S. Derenne

Earthworms are known to have a major impact on organic matter dynamics in soils. The precise dynamics of carbon incorporation and/or decomposition in soil under the influence of earthworms still need to be investigated. In a mesocosm experiment, the fate of Ryegrass root and shoot litter was monitored in the soil, in the presence and absence of anecic earthworms Lumbricus terrestris L. Residues were13C labelled and deposited onto the soil surface. Incorporation of 13C in surface casts and in the 0–20 and 40–60cm soil layers was monitored 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 54weeks after adding labelled litter. Organic carbon content and δ13C values were obtained for all samples, allowing the determination of the percentage of carbon derived from labelled litter (Clab). Roots and shoots were incorporated in the 0–20cm soil layer during the year of experiment, Clab reaching 11.4% of the soil organic carbon after 54weeks. On the contrary, no significant contribution from labelled residues was observed in the 40–60cm layer. Roots decomposed at a slower rate compared to shoots. Litter incorporation was observed in casts from the very first weeks of experiment (Clab from 34.8 to 51.4% after 2weeks). In the soil, a significant effect of earthworms on the Clab was detected after 24weeks. Earthworms accelerated root and shoot decomposition in the soil. They also enhanced, in the presence of shoot residues, the decomposition of the organic matter originally present in the soil. However, after one year, earthworms smoothed the difference between residue types in casts and to a lesser extent in soil, revealing their capacity to enhance the decomposition of both roots and shoots.

Impact of food type on respiration, fractionation and turnover of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in the marine amphipod Gammarus aequicauda (Martynov, 1931)
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (2017)
François Remy, François Darchambeau, Aurélie Melchior, Gilles Lepoint

This study experimentally determined the impact of food source type on turnover rate and trophic enrichment factors (TEFs or ∆) of δ13C and δ15N, as well as on respiration rate, in captive populations of the marine amphipod Gammarus aequicauda. Gammarus aequicauda (318 individuals) were fed ad libitum with three food sources animal, algae, and dead Posidonia oceanica leaves (also called “litter”), varying in palatability, digestibility, nutritional qualities and isotopic compositions, for between four and six weeks in a controlled feeding experiment. The resulting death rate was lower for the amphipods fed with animal treatment (30.9%) than for individuals fed with algal (65.9%) or litter treatment (64.4%), indicating a better fitness of the individuals fed with the animal food source. Respiration rates also differed highly among the treatments. Animal treatment showed higher respiration rates than algal and litter treatments, potentially due to the toxicity of the algae and the very low nutritional quality of the litter. Amphipods fed with these treatments might have entered in a “low activity state” to cope with these unsuitable food sources, inducing low respiration rates. Due to the very low assimilation and toxicity of the algae source, turnover rate for δ13C was impossible to determine. Turnover rate for δ13C was much faster (half-life=12.55days) for amphipods fed with the animal food source than for amphipods fed with litter (half-life=51.62days), showing the faster assimilation of the most nutritionally optimal food sources by G. aequicauda. Turnover for δ15N was impossible to determine because the amphipods were already at isotopic equilibrium at the beginning of the experiment. Despite the detritus feeder status of Gammarus aequicauda, TEFs for the animal treatments were in accordance with values generally found for carnivorous organisms (∆13C=0.9±0.7‰; ∆15N=2.9±0.6‰). TEFs for the litter treatment were in accordance with values generally corresponding to detritivorous organisms (∆13C=1.2‰; ∆15N=1.0±0.4‰). SIAR mixing model outputs obtained with these new TEF values were more constrained and coherent than outputs obtained with general literature TEFs. This study thus demonstrated the non-negligible impact of the food source on Gammarus aequicauda physiological status, fitness and turnover rates, but also on TEFs—highlighting the importance of TEF experimental calculations for every potential food source of a given organism to ensure more robust isotopic data interpretation.

Inter-annual variability in trophic patterns of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) off the exclusive economic zone of Peru, implications from stable isotope values in gladius
Fisheries Research (2017)
Yunkai Li, Yi Gong, Yuying Zhang, Xinjun Chen

The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas plays an important role in marine food webs in the eastern Pacific Ocean, as not only a voracious predator but also a valuable prey source. In this study, the proostracum (a morphological part of the gladius) from 45 samples were selected over three years and were serially sampled based on growth information obtained from the statolith. The δ13C and δ15N values along the proostracum were used to reconstruct the feeding variations of D. gigas and to evaluate the potential effects of 2009–10 El Niño event on the variability of their trophic patterns. The results show a strong variation in δ13C and δ15N values along the proostracum for all the squid; changes that could be determined by temporal variation of foraging as well as migration among regions with distinct baselines. An El Niño event could decrease the variation of trophic patterns of squid through compressing the space and time for foraging and migration. These results support our general hypothesis that a time-based consecutive sampling of the gladius can back-calculate an ontogenetic shift and the possible migration patterns of squids more precisely and comprehensively and suggest that the isotopic values of D.gigas might be influenced much more by their migration behavior.

Nitrogen and sulphur cycling in the saline coastal aquifer of Ferrara, Italy. A multi-isotope approach
Applied Geochemistry (2017)
M. Caschetto, N. Colombani, M. Mastrocicco, M. Petitta, R. Aravena

The origin of high ammonium and sulphate concentrations, characterizing the saline groundwater of the Po River floodplain coastal aquifer, are documented. A detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conceptual model is built up using a hydrochemical (major ions, DOC, DIC and methane) and isotopic (δ15NNO3, δ15NNH4, δ18ONO3, δ34SSO4, δ18OSO4 and δ13CDIC) approach. Based on previous hydrogeological investigations, two boreholes located in contrasting environments (urban and agricultural) have been sampled at high vertical resolution. Groundwater is mostly under reducing conditions, characterized by high DOC and DIC concentrations but low to moderate methane content. Dissolved ammonium, as high as 87.8 mgL−1, derives by the mineralization of N-organic rich fine sediments, as indicated by its N isotopic signatures (1÷3‰). Attenuation processes of ammonium are ruled by dilution and by partial nitrification, supported by the enrichment in δ15NNH4 (∼+7‰). Apart from dilution/oxidation processes, the positive correlation between δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 agreed with the occurrence of denitrification in the shallow part of the aquifer. δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 data highlight that oxidation of pyrite occurs but is not necessarily linked to nitrate removal. The isotope data showed that sulphate (>2500 mgL−1) is of marine origin. In the deeper part of the aquifer, sulphur and oxygen isotopes enrichment patterns, demonstrated that sulphate reduction (SR) occurs in the aquifer and it is also possible that SR occurred in the underlying clay units. δ13CDIC pattern toward depleted δ13CDIC values even as low as −40.4‰ documented the occurrence of SR mediated by organic carbon and SR coupled to oxidation of methane (AOM) are involved in the sulphur and carbon cycles. The present study shows the advantage of using stable isotopes complemented with geochemical data to characterize the solutes' origins, both natural and anthropogenic, and giving insights on biogeochemical transformations involving nitrogen, sulphur and carbon in coastal sediments.

A high-resolution temporal record of environmental changes in the Eastern Caribbean (Guadeloupe) from 40 to 10 ka BP
Quaternary Science Reviews (2017)
Aurélien Royer, Bruno Malaizé, Christophe Lécuyer, Alain Queffelec, Karine Charlier, Thibaut Caley, Arnaud Lenoble

In neotropical regions, fossil bat guano accumulated over time as laminated layers in caves, hence providing a high-resolution temporal record of terrestrial environmental changes. Additionally, cave settings have the property to preserve such organic sediments from processes triggered by winds (deflation, abrasion and sandblasting) and intense rainfall (leaching away). This study reports both stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of frugivorous bat guano deposited in a well-preserved stratigraphic succession of Blanchard Cave on Marie-Galante, Guadeloupe. These isotopic data are discussed with regard to climate changes and its specific impact on Eastern Caribbean vegetation during the Late Pleistocene from 40 to 10 ka cal. BP. Guano δ13C values are higher than modern ones, suggesting noticeable vegetation changes. This provides also evidence for overall drier environmental conditions during the Pleistocene compared to today. Meanwhile, within this generally drier climate, shifts between wetter and drier conditions can be observed. Large temporal amplitudes in both δ13C and δ15N variations reaching up to 5.9‰ and 16.8‰, respectively, also indicate these oceanic tropical environments have been highly sensitive to regional or global climatic forcing. Stable isotope compositions of bat guano deposited from 40 to 35 ka BP, the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger-Dryas reveal relatively wet environmental conditions whereas, at least from the end of the Heinrich event 1 and the Bølling period the region experienced drier environmental conditions. Nevertheless, when considering uncertainties in the model age, the isotopic record of Blanchard Cave show relatively similar variations with known proxy records from the northern South America and Central America, suggesting thus that the Blanchard Cave record is a robust proxy of past ITCZ migration. Teleconnections through global atmospheric pattern suggest that islands of the eastern Caribbean Basin could be also under the influence of a bipolar temperature gradients that impact the mean location of the ITCZ, with a Southern Hemisphere imprint during the glacial period and a more significant role of Northern Hemisphere during the last deglaciation.

How do plants share water sources in a rubber-tea agroforestry system during the pronounced dry season?
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment (2017)
Junen Wu, Wenjie Liu, Chunfeng Chen

Extensive cultivation of rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna in southwest (SW) China has resulted in negative hydrological consequences, particularly drought, during the pronounced dry season. Although rubber-tea agroforestry is regarded as the most successful agroforestry system for improving the sustainability of rubber agriculture and environmental conservation, plant water use patterns and their related interactions have rarely been examined in such systems. How do coexisting plants compete and share water under water deficit remains to be explored. Therefore, we used stable isotope (δD and δ18O) methods to determine the spatial water use patterns of both rubber trees and tea trees in a rubber-tea agroforestry system during the pronounced dry season and explored the movement of soil water in this system. The results of the MixSIAR model (a Bayesian mixing model) indicated that tea trees primarily uptake water from the 5–30cm soil layer (40.3%, on average), and rubber trees primarily uptake water from the 30–80cm soil layer (35.3%, on average) and absorb soil water evenly along slopes during the dry season. These results suggest that rubber trees and tea trees have different but complementary water use patterns. We also observed that the soil of the uphill and downhill tea rows contained much more water; however, the collaborative hydraulic redistribution in the studied agroforestry system could redistribute the soil water along the slope and below the ground well. Therefore, soil drought on terraces can be alleviated during the dry season. Our results confirmed that the tea tree is an appropriate crop for intercropping with rubber trees when considering water sharing and water management and provided a practical analysis of water use benefits from a rubber agroforestry system during drought stress.