• UNDERSTAND
    Contamination Sources
  • UNDERSTAND
    Eutrophication

Abfall & Verschmutzung

Eine effiziente Abfallwirtschaft zur Erhaltung der Gesundheits- und Lebensqualität ist durch das stetige Wachstum der städtischen Bevölkerung und dem damit verbundenen gestiegenen Konsum zu einer wichtigen globalen Herausforderung geworden. Einerseits ist es wichtig, Abfall entsprechend seiner Bestandteile zu klassifizieren, andererseits muss aber auch die chemische Zusammensetzung von beispielsweise organischen Schadstoffen bestimmt werden, um eventuelle Flächensanierungen zu planen.

TOC im Abfall

Deponien sind u.a. danach klassifiziert, ob sie umweltgefährdenden Abfall aufnehmen dürfen oder nicht. In der Abfallwirtschaft gilt der TOC als ein Summenparameter für die Verunreinigung mit organischen Verbindungen oder zur Evaluierung, ob ein Material recycelt werden kann. Außerdem spielt die Bestimmung des TOC bei der Qualitätskontrolle von Industriematerialien wie Flugaschen, Zement oder Kaolin eine wichtige Rolle.

Temperaturabhängige Kohlenstoff-Fraktionen

Die einfache, klassische Unterscheidung in TOC und TIC steht mittlerweile eine Methode entgegen mit der zusätzlich elementarer Kohlenstoff (ROC) in Feststoffen bestimmt werden kann. Dies ist von Bedeutung für die Deponierung von Abfällen, da ROC biologisch inaktiv und ohne Umweltrelevanz ist, aber klassischerweise mit dem TOC mitbestimmt wird. Mit einem Temperaturrampenverfahren, das in der DIN19539 beschrieben und mit dem soli TOC® cube umgesetzt wird, können alle drei Kohlenstoff-Fraktionen bestimmt werden (TOC, ROC, TIC).

Schadstoffquellen

Mittels stabiler Isotope können komplexe Interaktionen von organischen Schadstoffen in der Umwelt nachvollzogen werden. Die Betrachtung der Quellen und des Verhaltens von Schadstoffen ist essentiell für die Planung von Sanierungen, Ressourcenmanagement und den Umweltschutz im Allgemeinen. Mit unseren Geräten können wir dazu beitragen diese Prozesse besser zu verstehen und unsere Naturwunder auch für die nächste Generation zu erhalten.

Publikationen zum Thema Abfall & Verschmutzung mit unseren Geräten

Unsere Kunden nutzen unsere Geräte für erstaunliche Forschungsprojekte im Bereich Abfall und Verschmutzung. Um Ihnen zu zeigen, wie unsere Kunden ihre Forschung durchführen und wie unsere IRMS-Geräte eingesetzt werden, haben wir eine Reihe von Fachpublikationen gesammelt, die unsere Produkte namentlich nennen. Die Informationen zu diesen Fachartikeln finden Sie unten. Durch Klicken auf den Link werden Sie zur Website des jeweiligen Zeitschriftenverlags weitergeleitet, wo Sie die Publikation herunterladen können.

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84 Ergebnisse:

Mid-twentieth century increases in anthropogenic Pb, Cd and Cu in central Asia set in hemispheric perspective using Tien Shan ice core
Atmospheric Environment (2016)
B. Grigholm, P.A. Mayewski, V. Aizen, K. Kreutz, C.P. Wake, E. Aizen, S. Kang, K.A. Maasch, M.J. Handley, S.B. Sneed

High-resolution major and trace element (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Ti, and V) ice core records from Inilchek glacier (5120 m above sea level) on the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau provide the first multi-decadal ice core record spanning the period 1908–1995 AD in central Tien Shan. The trace element records reveal pronounced temporal baseline trends and concentration maxima characteristic of post-1950 anthropogenic emissions. Examination of Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations, along with non-crustal calculation estimates (i.e. excess (ex) and enrichment factor (EF)), reveal that discernable anthropogenic inputs began during the 1950s and rapidly increased to the late-1970s and early 1980s, by factors up to of 5, 6 and 3, respectively, relative to a 1910–1950 means. Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations between the 1950s-1980s are reflective of large-scale Soviet industrial and agricultural development, including the growth of production and/or consumption of the non-ferrous metals, coal and phosphate fertilizers. NOAA HYSPLIT back-trajectory frequency analysis suggests pollutant sources originating primarily from southern Kazakhstan (e.g. Shymkent and Balkhash) and the Fergana Valley (located in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Inilchek ice core Pb, Cd and Cu reveals declines during the 1980s concurrent with Soviet economic declines, however, due to the rapid industrial and agricultural growth of western China, Pb, Cd and Cu trends increase during the 1990s reflecting a transition from primarily central Asian sources to emission sources from western China (e.g. Xinjiang Province).
Schlagworte: hydrogen , oxygen , poll , gashead

Isotope-based partitioning of streamflow in the oil sands region, northern Alberta: Towards a monitoring strategy for assessing flow sources and water quality controls
Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies (2016)
J.J. Gibson, Y. Yi, S.J. Birks

STUDY REGION This study is based on the rapidly developing Athabasca Oil Sands region, northeastern Alberta. STUDY FOCUS Hydrograph separation using stable isotopes of water is applied to partition streamflow sources in the Athabasca River and its tributaries. Distinct isotopic labelling of snow, rain, groundwater and surface water are applied to estimate the contribution of these sources to streamflow from analysis of multi-year records of isotopes in streamflow. NEW HYDROLOGICAL INSIGHTS FOR THE REGION The results provide new insight into runoff generation mechanisms operating in six tributaries and at four stations along the Athabasca River. Groundwater, found to be an important flow source at all stations, is the dominant component of the hydrograph in three tributaries (Steepbank R., Muskeg R., Firebag R.), accounting for 39–50% of annual streamflow. Surface water, mainly drainage from peatlands, is also found to be widely important, and dominant in three tributaries (Clearwater R., Mackay R., Ells R.), accounting for 45–81% of annual streamflow. Fairly limited contributions from direct precipitation illustrate that most snow and rain events result in indirect displacement of pre-event water by fill and spill mechanisms. Systematic shifts in regional groundwater to surface-water ratios are expected to be an important control on spatial and temporal distribution of water quality parameters and useful for evaluating the susceptibility of rivers to climate and development impacts.
Schlagworte: hydrogen , oxygen , geol , poll , aquap

Origin and availability of organic matter leading to arsenic mobilisation in aquifers of the Red River Delta, Vietnam
Applied Geochemistry (2016)
Elisabeth Eiche, Michael Berg, Sarah-Madeleine Hönig, Thomas Neumann, Vi Mai Lan, Thi Kim Trang Pham, Hung Viet Pham

Groundwater arsenic (As) concentrations in the Red River Delta (Vietnam) are often patchy and related to the microbially induced reduction of Fe oxy-hydroxides. In this study, we explored the influence of the origin, composition and availability of natural organic matter on the hydrochemical variability in the aquifers of Van Phuc. Carbon isotope signatures (δ13Corg) and C/N ratios were assessed in combination with lithology, geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrology and the distribution of specific biomarkers. The elationship of C/N ratios and δ13Corg distinguished four groups of sediment types that differ in their organic carbon sources. This includes organic carbon originating predominantly from vascular C3 plants (C/N: 15.4–21.0, δ13Corg: −28.6 to −26.7‰), C4 plants (C/N: 10.6; δ13Corg: −14.8‰), freshwater derived particulate organic carbon (C/N: ≤8; δ13Corg:≤−24‰) as well as mixtures incorporating both sources. At the high As sites, we found particulate organic carbon (POC) being 1–2‰ less depleted in δ13Corg than at low As sites. More importantly, however, our assessment shows that, the availability of organic matter has to be considered decisive with regard to groundwater As contamination. Fine-grained clayey sediments overlaying sands generally protect organic matter from substantial degradation and its leaching into an adjacent aquifer. However, at the sites that are high in dissolved As in Van Phuc, sediment layers rich in organic matter are hydraulically connected to the underlying aquifer. Here, soluble organic matter seeping into the aquifer can induce and/or enhance reducing conditions, thereby mobilising As from Fe oxy-hydroxides. Our study shows that both the clay content as well as the origin of organic matter are largely controlled by the depositional environment of the sediments.
Schlagworte: carbon , soil , geol , poll , elem

Contrasted accumulation patterns of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in sympatric tropical dolphins from the south-western Indian Ocean
Environmental Research (2016)
Alin C. Dirtu, Govindan Malarvannan, Krishna Das, Violaine Dulau-Drouot, Jeremy J. Kiszka, Gilles Lepoint, Philippe Mongin, Adrian Covaci

Due to their high trophic position and long life span, small cetaceans are considered as suitable bioindicators to monitor the presence of contaminants in marine ecosystems. Here, we document the contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and total mercury (T-Hg) of spinner (Stenella longirostris, n =21) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus, n=32) sampled from the coastal waters of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean). In addition, seven co-occurring teleost fish species were sampled and analyzed as well. Blubber samples from living dolphins and muscle from teleosts were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and metabolites (DDTs), chlordanes (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), reported as having a natural origin, were also analyzed. T-Hg levels were measured in blubber and skin biopsies of the two dolphin species. Stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N values were determined in skin of the dolphins and in the muscle of teleosts. For PCBs, HCHs and T-Hg, concentrations were significantly higher in T. aduncus than in S. longirostris. For other POP levels, intra-species variability was high. MeO-PBDEs were the dominant compounds (55% of the total POPs) in S. longirostris, while PCBs dominated (50% contribution) in T. aduncus. Other contaminants showed similar profiles between the two species. Given the different patterns of POPs and T-Hg contamination and the δ15N values observed among analyzed teleosts, dietary and foraging habitat preferences most likely explain the contrasted contaminant profiles observed in the two dolphin species. Levels of each class of contaminants were significantly higher in males than females. Despite their spatial and temporal overlap in the waters of La Réunion, S. longirostris and T. aduncus are differently exposed to contaminant accumulation.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , ecol , ocea , poll , elem

Effects of biocontrol with an atyid shrimp (Caridina denticulata) and a bagrid catfish (Pseudobagrus fulvidraco) on toxic cyanobacteria bloom (Microcystis aeruginosa) in a eutrophic agricultural reservoir
Paddy and Water Environment (2016)
Min-Seob Kim, Yeonjung Lee, Seongjin Hong, Soon-Jin Hwang, Baik-Ho Kim, Kwang-Guk An, Young-Seuk Park, Sang-Kyu Park, Han-Yong Um, Kyung-Hoon Shin

The biocontrol effects of Caridina denticulata, an atyid shrimp, on toxic cyanobacterial bloom (Microcystis aeruginosa) were evaluated in a mesocosm study with stable isotope tracers (13C and 15N) in a eutrophic agricultural reservoir. The accumulated assimilation (at.%) of M. aeruginosa into C. denticulata was increased, causing a significant reduction in the concentration of Chlorophyll-a. The ingestion rate of M. aeruginosa by C. denticulata was influenced by predation pressure exerted by bagrid catfish Pseudobagrus fulvidraco and was dependent on biomass ratio. C. denticulata affected zooplankton density, species composition, and ingestion rate, demonstrating that the number of small-sized cladocerans (Bosmina coregoni and Bosmina longispina) increased because they grazed M. aeruginosa for a food source. This study suggests that C. denticulata and P. fulvidraco can be feasible material to control a nuisance M. aeruginosa bloom in eutrophic agricultural reservoir.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , soil , ecol , poll , elem

Dynamics of PAHs and derived organic compounds in a soil-plant mesocosm spiked with 13C-phenanthrene
Chemosphere (2016)
Johanne Cennerazzo, Alexis de Junet, Jean-Nicolas Audinot, Corinne Leyval

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and persistent soil pollutants. Their fate and the influence of the plant rhizosphere on their dynamics has been extensively studied, but studies mainly focused on their dissipation rate. We conducted a plant-soil mesocosm experiment to study the fate and distribution of PAHs or derived compounds in the extractable fraction, the residual soil, the shoot biomass and the root biomass. The experiment was conducted for 21 days using ryegrass and a forest soil spiked with 13C-labeled phenanthrene (PHE), using combined IRMS and NanoSIMS for analyses. Almost 90% of the initial extractable PHE content was dissipated within 3 weeks, but no rhizospheric effect was highlighted on PHE dissipation. More than 40% of 13C-PHE was still in the soil at the end of the experiment, but not as PHE or PAH-derived compounds. Therefore it was under the form of new compounds (metabolites) and/or had been incorporated into the microbial biomass. About 0.36% of the initial 13C-PHE was recovered in the root and shoot tissues, representing similar 13C enrichment (E13C) as in the soil (E13C ≈ 0.04 at.%). Using NanoSIMS, 13C was also localized at the microscale in the roots and their close environment. Global 13C enrichment confirmed the results obtained by IRMS. Some hotspots of 13C enrichment were found, with a high 32S/12C14N ratio. Comparing the ratios, sizes and shapes of these hotspots suggested that they could be bacteria.
Schlagworte: carbon , poll , elem , gaschrom

The effects of nitrogen pollutants on the isotopic signal (δ15N) of Ulva lactuca: Microcosm experiments
Marine Pollution Bulletin (2016)
Lucia Orlandi, Edoardo Calizza, Giulio Careddu, Pasquale Carlino, Maria Letizia Costantini, Loreto Rossi

Effects of two chemical forms of Nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3−) on δ15N in Ulva lactuca were analysed separately and in mixture at two concentrations. We assessed whether the δ15N values of U. lactuca discriminate between Nitrogen from synthetic fertilisers (inorganic) and from fresh cow manure (organic), and the isotopic ability of the macroalga to reflect Nitrogen concentrations. Isotopic signature and N content of the macroalga reflected different nitrogenous sources and their concentrations after 48h. The inorganic Nitrogen source (NH4NO3) altered the isotopic values of the macroalgae more than Nitrogen from fresh cow manure (NO3−). δ15N values observed in the mixed solution did not differ from those displayed in NH4NO3 treatment alone. We conclude that stable isotope analysis of U. lactuca collected in an unpolluted site and experimentally submerged in sites suspected of being affected by disturbance is a useful tool for rapid monitoring of anthropogenic discharges of Nitrogen pollutants.
Schlagworte: nitrogen , ocea , poll , elem

The effects of nitrogen pollutants on the isotopic signal (δ15N) of Ulva lactuca: Microcosm experiments
Marine Pollution Bulletin (2016)
Lucia Orlandi, Edoardo Calizza, Giulio Careddu, Pasquale Carlino, Maria Letizia Costantini, Loreto Rossi

Effects of two chemical forms of Nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3−) on δ15N in Ulva lactuca were analysed separately and in mixture at two concentrations. We assessed whether the δ15N values of U. lactuca discriminate between Nitrogen from synthetic fertilisers (inorganic) and from fresh cow manure (organic), and the isotopic ability of the macroalga to reflect Nitrogen concentrations. Isotopic signature and N content of the macroalga reflected different nitrogenous sources and their concentrations after 48h. The inorganic Nitrogen source (NH4NO3) altered the isotopic values of the macroalgae more than Nitrogen from fresh cow manure (NO3−). δ15N values observed in the mixed solution did not differ from those displayed in NH4NO3 treatment alone. We conclude that stable isotope analysis of U. lactuca collected in an unpolluted site and experimentally submerged in sites suspected of being affected by disturbance is a useful tool for rapid monitoring of anthropogenic discharges of Nitrogen pollutants.
Schlagworte: nitrogen , ocea , poll , elem

Internal loading of phosphate in Lake Erie Central Basin
Science of The Total Environment (2016)
Adina Paytan, Kathryn Roberts, Sue Watson, Sara Peek, Pei-Chuan Chuang, Delphine Defforey, Carol Kendall

After significant reductions in external phosphorus (P) loads, and subsequent water quality improvements in the early 1980s, the water quality of Lake Erie has declined considerably over the past decade. The frequency and magnitude of harmful algal blooms (primarily in the western basin) and the extent of hypoxic bottom waters in the central basin have increased. The decline in ecosystem health, despite meeting goals for external P loads, has sparked a renewed effort to understand P cycling in the lake. We use pore-water P concentration profiles and sediment cores incubation experiments to quantify the P flux from Lake Erie central basin sediments. In addition, the oxygen isotopes of phosphate were investigated to assess the isotopic signature of sedimentary phosphate inputs relative to the isotopic signature of phosphate in lake water. Extrapolating the total P sediment flux based on the pore-water profiles to the whole area of the central basin ranged from 300 to 1250metric tons per year and using the flux based on core incubation experiments an annual flux of roughly 2400metric tons of P is calculated. These estimates amount to 8–20% of the total external input of P to Lake Erie. The isotopic signature of phosphate in the extractable fraction of the sediments (~18‰) can explain the non-equilibrium isotope values of dissolved phosphate in the deep water of the central basin of Lake Erie, and this is consistent with sediments as an important internal source of P in the Lake.

Dynamics of PAHs and derived organic compounds in a soil-plant mesocosm spiked with 13C-phenanthrene
Chemosphere (2016)
Johanne Cennerazzo, Alexis de Junet, Jean-Nicolas Audinot, Corinne Leyval

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and persistent soil pollutants. Their fate and the influence of the plant rhizosphere on their dynamics has been extensively studied, but studies mainly focused on their dissipation rate. We conducted a plant-soil mesocosm experiment to study the fate and distribution of PAHs or derived compounds in the extractable fraction, the residual soil, the shoot biomass and the root biomass. The experiment was conducted for 21 days using ryegrass and a forest soil spiked with 13C-labeled phenanthrene (PHE), using combined IRMS and NanoSIMS for analyses. Almost 90% of the initial extractable PHE content was dissipated within 3 weeks, but no rhizospheric effect was highlighted on PHE dissipation. More than 40% of 13C-PHE was still in the soil at the end of the experiment, but not as PHE or PAH-derived compounds. Therefore it was under the form of new compounds (metabolites) and/or had been incorporated into the microbial biomass. About 0.36% of the initial 13C-PHE was recovered in the root and shoot tissues, representing similar 13C enrichment (E13C) as in the soil (E13C ≈ 0.04 at.%). Using NanoSIMS, 13C was also localized at the microscale in the roots and their close environment. Global 13C enrichment confirmed the results obtained by IRMS. Some hotspots of 13C enrichment were found, with a high 32S/12C14N ratio. Comparing the ratios, sizes and shapes of these hotspots suggested that they could be bacteria.
Schlagworte: carbon , soil , poll , elem , gaschrom