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    Eutrophication

Abfall & Verschmutzung

Eine effiziente Abfallwirtschaft zur Erhaltung der Gesundheits- und Lebensqualität ist durch das stetige Wachstum der städtischen Bevölkerung und dem damit verbundenen gestiegenen Konsum zu einer wichtigen globalen Herausforderung geworden. Einerseits ist es wichtig, Abfall entsprechend seiner Bestandteile zu klassifizieren, andererseits muss aber auch die chemische Zusammensetzung von beispielsweise organischen Schadstoffen bestimmt werden, um eventuelle Flächensanierungen zu planen.

TOC im Abfall

Deponien sind u.a. danach klassifiziert, ob sie umweltgefährdenden Abfall aufnehmen dürfen oder nicht. In der Abfallwirtschaft gilt der TOC als ein Summenparameter für die Verunreinigung mit organischen Verbindungen oder zur Evaluierung, ob ein Material recycelt werden kann. Außerdem spielt die Bestimmung des TOC bei der Qualitätskontrolle von Industriematerialien wie Flugaschen, Zement oder Kaolin eine wichtige Rolle.

Temperaturabhängige Kohlenstoff-Fraktionen

Die einfache, klassische Unterscheidung in TOC und TIC steht mittlerweile eine Methode entgegen mit der zusätzlich elementarer Kohlenstoff (ROC) in Feststoffen bestimmt werden kann. Dies ist von Bedeutung für die Deponierung von Abfällen, da ROC biologisch inaktiv und ohne Umweltrelevanz ist, aber klassischerweise mit dem TOC mitbestimmt wird. Mit einem Temperaturrampenverfahren, das in der DIN19539 beschrieben und mit dem soli TOC® cube umgesetzt wird, können alle drei Kohlenstoff-Fraktionen bestimmt werden (TOC, ROC, TIC).

Schadstoffquellen

Mittels stabiler Isotope können komplexe Interaktionen von organischen Schadstoffen in der Umwelt nachvollzogen werden. Die Betrachtung der Quellen und des Verhaltens von Schadstoffen ist essentiell für die Planung von Sanierungen, Ressourcenmanagement und den Umweltschutz im Allgemeinen. Mit unseren Geräten können wir dazu beitragen diese Prozesse besser zu verstehen und unsere Naturwunder auch für die nächste Generation zu erhalten.

Publikationen zum Thema Abfall & Verschmutzung mit unseren Geräten

Unsere Kunden nutzen unsere Geräte für erstaunliche Forschungsprojekte im Bereich Abfall und Verschmutzung. Um Ihnen zu zeigen, wie unsere Kunden ihre Forschung durchführen und wie unsere IRMS-Geräte eingesetzt werden, haben wir eine Reihe von Fachpublikationen gesammelt, die unsere Produkte namentlich nennen. Die Informationen zu diesen Fachartikeln finden Sie unten. Durch Klicken auf den Link werden Sie zur Website des jeweiligen Zeitschriftenverlags weitergeleitet, wo Sie die Publikation herunterladen können.

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84 Ergebnisse:

Compound-Specific Isotope Analyses to Assess TCE Biodegradation in a Fractured Dolomitic Aquifer
Groundwater (2016)
Justin A. Clark, Randy L. Stotler, Shaun K. Frape, Walter A. Illman

The potential for trichloroethene (TCE) biodegradation in a fractured dolomite aquifer at a former chemical disposal site in Smithville, Ontario, Canada, is assessed using chemical analysis and TCE and cis-DCE compound-specific isotope analysis of carbon and chlorine collected over a 16-month period. Groundwater redox conditions change from suboxic to much more reducing environments within and around the plume, indicating that oxidation of organic contaminants and degradation products is occurring at the study site. TCE and cis-DCE were observed in 13 of 14 wells sampled. VC, ethene, and/or ethane were also observed in ten wells, indicating that partial/full dechlorination has occurred. Chlorine isotopic values (δ37Cl) range between 1.39 to 4.69‰ SMOC for TCE, and 3.57 to 13.86‰ SMOC for cis-DCE. Carbon isotopic values range between −28.9 and −20.7‰ VPDB for TCE, and −26.5 and −11.8‰ VPDB for cis-DCE. In most wells, isotopic values remained steady over the 15-month study. Isotopic enrichment from TCE to cis-DCE varied between 0 and 13‰ for carbon and 1 and 4‰ for chlorine. Calculated chlorine-carbon isotopic enrichment ratios (ϵCl/ϵC) were 0.18 for TCE and 0.69 for cis-DCE. Combined, isotopic and chemical data indicate very little dechlorination is occurring near the source zone, but suggest bacterially mediated degradation is occurring closer to the edges of the plume.
Schlagworte: carbon , poll , gaschrom , mcol

Stable isotope on the evaluation of water quality in the presence of WWTPs in rivers
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2016)
Jaewoong Lee, Taejin Park, Min-seob Kim, Jongmin Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Su Kyuong Lee, Young Sun Lee, Won-seok Lee, Soonju Yu, Doughee Rhew

We investigated the distribution of nitrogen compounds in Han River as well as two tributaries of Tancheon and Jungrangcheon. Particularly, we observed the significant releases of NH4 +-N from effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in two tributaries that has resulted in the increases of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 +-N) in Han River as well as in Tancheon and Jungrangcheon. Due to the increases of NH4 +-N in two tributaries, the larger distribution of δ15N-NH4 + was observed than those of δ15N-NO3 − in downstream. We calculated the contribution rate of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen from effluent to downstream according to the results of stable isotope. The contribution rates of δ15N-NH4 + from effluent to downstream were significant that ranged between 53 and 100 % in Tancheon and between 27 and 100 % in Jungrangcheon. While the contribution of δ15N-NO3 − was not significant in Tancheon, it was occasionally observed in Jungrangcheon. These results demonstrated that WWTPs are the major sources of NH4 +-N in two tributaries, which caused the distinguishable stable isotope of δ15N-NH4 +. Therefore, the stable isotope of δ15N-NH4 + could be a useful parameter or tracer for the evaluation of NH4-N released from WWTPs in rivers.
Schlagworte: nitrogen , poll , elem

Dynamics of δ15N isotopic signatures of different intertidal macroalgal species: Assessment of bioindicators of N sources in coastal areas
Marine Pollution Bulletin (2016)
Stéphanie Lemesle, Alexandre Erraud, Isabelle Mussio, Anne-Marie Rusig, Pascal Claquin

δ15N of annual (Ulva sp., Porphyra sp.) and perennial intertidal seaweed species (Chondrus crispus, Fucus sp.) collected on 17 sampling points along the French coast of the English Channel in 2012 and 2013 were assessed on their suitability as bioindicators of N pollution in coastal areas. A sine function applied for δ15N time series data showed for all the species the same seasonal trend with lowest δ15N values in April and highest in summer but with no significant interspecific differences of amplitude (α) and phase angle (ϕ). This model provides a useful tool for monitoring the inter-annual changes of N pollution. An interspecific variability of δ15N values was observed, probably due to their tolerance to emersion. An in vitro study for comparing the kinetic acquisition of the isotopic signal and N uptake mechanisms of each species underlined the influence of algal physiology on the δ15N interspecific variability.
Schlagworte: nitrogen , ocea , poll , elem

Mangrove degradation and response to anthropogenic disturbance in Maowei Sea (SW China) since 1926 AD: Mangrove-derived OM and pollen
Organic Geochemistry (2016)
Xianwei Meng, Peng Xia, Zhen Li, Dezhen Meng

Mangrove forests, located at the interface between land and sea, have been impacted by an increase in intensive anthropogenic disturbance in developing countries or regions. In order to study the impact of human activity on mangrove forests, mangrove development was reconstructed over the last 130 yr, using the contribution of mangrove-derived organic matter (OM) and mangrove pollen as proxies, from two sediment cores from the Maowei Sea (SW China). It is a semi-enclosed bay that receives a large amount of terrestrial material from the Qinjiang and Maoling rivers, with average sedimentation rate of 0.63–0.64 cm/yr. The material accumulates mainly in the coast and its adjacent region, owing to weak water exchange through the channel. Sediment samples had C:N and δ13Corg values intermediate between mangrove leaves and flood plain sediments, indicating that OM sources could be apportioned as a mixture from only these two sources. Based on k-mean cluster analysis, mangrove development was divided into three stages since 1880 AD: (i) a flourishing period (1880–1926 AD), (ii) a phase of slow degradation (1926–1980 AD) and (iii) a time of rapid degradation (1980 AD to the present). The study indicates that anthropogenic activity, including reclamation of mangrove swamps for farmland and shrimp ponds, is the primary reason for mangrove degradation since 1926 AD, rather than climate change (temperature and precipitation).
Schlagworte: carbon , soil , ocea , poll , elem

Fossil fuel combustion-related emissions dominate atmospheric ammonia sources during severe haze episodes: Evidence from 15N-stable isotope in size-resolved aerosol ammonium
(2016)
Yuepeng Pan, Shili Tian, Dongwei Liu, Yunting Fang, Xiaying Zhu, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Greg Michalski, Yuesi Wang

The reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions is urgently needed due to its role in aerosol nucleation and growth causing haze formation during its conversion into ammonium (NH4+). However, the relative contributions of individual NH3 sources are unclear, and debate remains over whether agricultural emissions dominate atmospheric NH3 in urban areas. Based on the chemical and isotopic measurements of size-resolved aerosols in urban Beijing, China, we find that the natural abundance of 15N (expressed using δ15N values) of NH4+ in fine particles varies with the development of haze episodes, ranging from -37.1‰ to -21.7‰ during clean/dusty days (relative humidity: ~40%), to -13.1‰ to +5.8‰ during hazy days (relative humidity: 70-90%). After accounting for the isotope exchange between NH3 gas and aerosol NH4+, the δ15N value of the initial NH3 during hazy days is found to be -14.5‰ to -1.6‰, which indicates fossil fuel-based emissions. These emissions contribute 90% of the total NH3 during hazy days in urban Beijin...
Schlagworte: nitrogen , poll , gashead

Fossil Fuel Combustion-Related Emissions Dominate Atmospheric Ammonia Sources during Severe Haze Episodes: Evidence from 15 N-Stable Isotope in Size-Resolved Aerosol Ammonium
Environmental Science & Technology (2016)
Yuepeng Pan, Shili Tian, Dongwei Liu, Yunting Fang, Xiaying Zhu, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Greg Michalski, Yuesi Wang

The reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions is urgently needed due to its role in aerosol nucleation and growth causing haze formation during its conversion into ammonium (NH4+). However, the relative contributions of individual NH3 sources are unclear, and debate remains over whether agricultural emissions dominate atmospheric NH3 in urban areas. Based on the chemical and isotopic measurements of size-resolved aerosols in urban Beijing, China, we find that the natural abundance of 15N (expressed using δ15N values) of NH4+ in fine particles varies with the development of haze episodes, ranging from −37.1‰ to −21.7‰ during clean/dusty days (relative humidity: ∼ 40%), to −13.1‰ to +5.8‰ during hazy days (relative humidity: 70–90%). After accounting for the isotope exchange between NH3 gas and aerosol NH4+, the δ15N value of the initial NH3 during hazy days is found to be −14.5‰ to −1.6‰, which indicates fossil fuel-based emissions. These emissions contribute 90% of the total NH3 during hazy days in urban Beiji...
Schlagworte: nitrogen , poll , gashead

Emission characterization and δ13C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants
Journal of Hazardous Materials (2016)
Ruwei Wang, Balal Yousaf, Ruoyu Sun, Hong Zhang, Jiamei Zhang, Guijian Liu

The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM2.5–10), intermediate (PM1–2.5) and fine (PM1) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM1–2.5 and PM1. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high-temperature carbonization, gasification and combustion.

Emission characterization and δ13C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants
Journal of Hazardous Materials (2016)
Ruwei Wang, Balal Yousaf, Ruoyu Sun, Hong Zhang, Jiamei Zhang, Guijian Liu

The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM2.5–10), intermediate (PM1–2.5) and fine (PM1) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM1–2.5 and PM1. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high-temperature carbonization, gasification and combustion.

One-century decline of mollusk diversity as consequence of accumulative anthropogenic disturbance in a tropical estuary (Cuban Archipelago)
Marine Pollution Bulletin (2016)
Maickel Armenteros, Misael Díaz-Asencio, Raúl Fernández-Garcés, Carlos Alonso Hernández, Yusmila Helguera-Pedraza, Yoelvis Bolaños-Alvarez, Claudia Agraz-Hernández, Joan-Albert Sanchez-Cabeza

In order to infer changes in sediments and mollusk assemblages for the last century, we used biogeochemical data from two 210Pb dated cores collected in Sagua La Grande estuary, Cuban Archipelago. We found evidences of cumulative anthropogenic disturbance during the last century, causing considerable depletion of mollusk assemblage diversity and enhancement of the dominance of deposit feeding species. The sequence of impacts assessed was i) eutrophication due to nutrient releases from urban settlements, ii) habitat alteration due to water channeling and damming, and iii) mercury pollution. These successive impacts caused a steady diversity depletion from ca. 70 mollusk species in 1900 to less than five in 2010. Only two species persisted in the estuary: Nuculana acuta and Finella dubia. Hurricanes did not impact the molluscan fauna in the long term. The effects of the anthropogenic impacts suggest that the resilience of this estuarine system is compromised.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , ocea , poll , elem

Do forests represent a long-term source of contaminated particulate matter in the Fukushima Prefecture?
Journal of Environmental Management (2016)
J. Patrick Laceby, Sylvain Huon, Yuichi Onda, Veronique Vaury, Olivier Evrard

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in radiocesium fallout contaminating coastal catchments of the Fukushima Prefecture. As the decontamination effort progresses, the potential downstream migration of radiocesium contaminated particulate matter from forests, which cover over 65% of the most contaminated region, requires investigation. Carbon and nitrogen elemental concentrations and stable isotope ratios are thus used to model the relative contributions of forest, cultivated and subsoil sources to deposited particulate matter in three contaminated coastal catchments. Samples were taken from the main identified sources: cultivated (n = 28), forest (n = 46), and subsoils (n = 25). Deposited particulate matter (n = 82) was sampled during four fieldwork campaigns from November 2012 to November 2014. A distribution modelling approach quantified relative source contributions with multiple combinations of element parameters (carbon only, nitrogen only, and four parameters) for two particle size fractions (<63 μm and <2 mm). Although there was significant particle size enrichment for the particulate matter parameters, these differences only resulted in a 6% (SD 3%) mean difference in relative source contributions. Further, the three different modelling approaches only resulted in a 4% (SD 3%) difference between relative source contributions. For each particulate matter sample, six models (i.e. <63 μm and <2 mm from the three modelling approaches) were used to incorporate a broader definition of potential uncertainty into model results. Forest sources were modelled to contribute 17% (SD 10%) of particulate matter indicating they present a long term potential source of radiocesium contaminated material in fallout impacted catchments. Subsoils contributed 45% (SD 26%) of particulate matter and cultivated sources contributed 38% (SD 19%). The reservoir of radiocesium in forested landscapes in the Fukushima region represents a potential long-term source of particulate contaminated matter that will require diligent management for the foreseeable future.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , soil , poll , elem