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Die Erforschung der Erdgeschichte erfüllt den grundlegenden menschlichen Drang zu wissen, wie die Welt entstanden ist. Im Laufe ihrer 4,6 Milliarden Jahre langen Geschichte hat die Erde eine enorme Transformation durchlaufen, und die Stabilisotopenanalyse steht bei der Erforschung dieser Veränderungsprozesse an vorderster Front. Durch das Verständnis der makro- und mikrozyklischen Mechanismen, welchen die leichten stabilen Isotope in der Lithosphäre durch natürliche Prozesse unterliegen, wächst auch unser Wissen über die Erdgeschichte kontinuierlich.

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Eine der ersten Anwendungen der Stabilisotopenmassenspektrometrie leichter Elemente war die Rekonstruktion des Paläoklimas auf Grundlage der Sauerstoff-Isotopenzusammensetzung (δ18O) von sehr alten, konservierten marinen Carbonaten. Auch heute noch ist dies eine der weitverbreitesten Methoden zur Erforschung der Klimageschichte der Erde. Dieses Paläothermometer basiert auf dem Grundprinzip, dass die Fraktionierung von Sauerstoffisotopen in Calcit temperaturabhängig ist. Das isoprime precisION mit Dual Inlet und MultiCarb ermöglicht eine sehr präzise und zuverlässige, automatisierte Messung von Carbonaten, ideal zur Erzeugung hochauflösender Paläotemperaturaufzeichnungen.

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Die Schwefelisotopenanalyse von extraterrestrischen Sulfidmineralien, z.B. von Meteoriten, hat eine Vielzahl von Erkenntnissen über den Ursprung der Erde und des Sonnensystems ermöglicht. Die Isotopenzusammensetzung von meteoritischem Schwefel (Canyon Diabolo Triolite) wurde auch als der ursprüngliche Bezugspunkt für Erdkruste und -mantel verwendet, von der ausgehend die globalen Fraktionen im Schwefelkreislauf evaluiert werden. Schwefelhaltige Mineralien lassen sich leicht mit unserem vielseitigen Spektrum von EA-IRMS-Systemen analysieren, welche die Advanced Purge and Trap Technologie (APT) für eine unschlagbare Trennung und Peakfokussierung von SO2 nutzen, um eine perfekte Auflösung und eine unvergleichliche Empfindlichkeit für die Mineralschwefelanalyse zu gewährleisten.

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δ13C-Fluktuationen im Laufe geologischer Zeitalter werden durch Änderungen des Gleichgewichts im Kohlenstoffkreislauf bewirkt. Da die Verweilzeit im Kohlenstoffkreislauf kurz ist (10 ka), werden Änderungen im Kohlenstofffluss im Sediment sehr genau global aufgezeichnet. Als solche sind gelegentliche Spikes im globalen δ13C als stratigraphische Marker für die Chemostratigraphie nützlich, besonders während des Paläozoikums. Der iso FLOW nutzt unsere neuartige UltiTrap-Technologie und ermöglicht so eine präzise, durchgängige Continuous Flow Analyse von Massencarbonaten, um solche Isotopenabweichungen zu identifizieren.

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Geochemical distribution and fate of arsenic in water and sediments of rivers from the Hokusetsu area, Japan
Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies (2017)
Emilie Even, Harue Masuda, Takahiro Shibata, Aki Nojima, Yusuke Sakamoto, Yusuke Murasaki, Hitoshi Chiba

STUDY REGION Hokusetsu Region in Osaka, Japan. STUDY FOCUS The As contamination was investigated through the geochemical mapping and analysis of river waters and bed sediments over an area of 440km2. Sulfur from sulfides in rocks and dissolved sulfates in water were compared via isotopic analysis to assess their origin and the subsequently released As. The fate of As (transport, binding on settling particles) was evaluated through the total and dissolved fractions of As and trace metals Fe, Mn and Al in river waters. NEW HYDROLOGICAL INSIGHTS FOR THE REGION The geochemical mapping showed that As in river water exceeded the maximum limit concentration of 10ppb in several places. The highest As levels (waters and sediments) correlated well with the surface geologies, concentrating in a halo around granitic intrusion and nearby faults. The isotopic analysis of sulfur revealed the occurrence of two kinds of sulfide mineralizations responsible for As contamination: one from Late Paleozoic submarine volcanism in sedimentary rocks, and one from Late Cretaceous igneous activities in contact-metamorphosed rocks disseminated with sulfides. The transport of As along river courses occurred mainly as a dissolved species rather than absorbed on Fe/Mn/Al particles, signifying the least role of iron oxy-hydroxides in As adsorption.

Examining nitrogen dynamics in the unsaturated zone under an inactive cesspit using chemical tracers and environmental isotopes
Applied Geochemistry (2017)
Claudia Varnier, Ricardo Hirata, Ramon Aravena

This study evaluates the dynamics of nitrogen compounds generated by infiltration of wastewater from an inactive cesspit in the unconfined and sedimentary Adamantina Aquifer in Urânia, Brazil. A monitoring station, consisting of an 11.2 m well (1.8 m in diameter) with an array of 12 tensiometers and 12 suction lysimeters, was installed to monitor the shallow unsaturated zone from 0.5 to 9 m depth. A monitoring well was also installed below the water level to monitor the shallow aquifer. High amounts of ammonium (up to 96 mg/L NH4+-N) and nitrate (up to 458 mg/L NO3−-N) were observed in the unsaturated zone porewater which is comparable to active septic systems effluents. The distribution of NO3−, Cl− and Na+, typical constituents of sewage effluents, varied seasonally and spatially, which is correlated with changes in infiltration rates between the wet and dry seasons and with hydraulic conductivity variations in interlayered sandy and clayey sediments. A detailed monitoring of porewater geochemistry demonstrated the occurrence of several important reactions affecting nitrogen dynamics in the unsaturated zone: i) oxidation of organic matter, ii) ammonification, iii) nitrification, iv) methanogenesis, v) denitrification and likely, vi) sulfate reduction. The changes in nitrogen compound distribution and δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 values in porewater, in association with the N2O concentration and δ15NN2O and δ18ON2O signatures in gas samples, indicate the occurrence of nitrification and denitrification, suggesting the coexistence of reducing and oxidizing microsites in the unsaturated zone. This study indicated that cesspits can generate a significant amount of nitrate even a few years after being inactivated which can represent a potential long-term source of nitrate to groundwater in highly populated areas.
Schlagworte: nitrogen , oxygen , geol , poll , gashead

Examining nitrogen dynamics in the unsaturated zone under an inactive cesspit using chemical tracers and environmental isotopes
Applied Geochemistry (2017)
Claudia Varnier, Ricardo Hirata, Ramon Aravena

This study evaluates the dynamics of nitrogen compounds generated by infiltration of wastewater from an inactive cesspit in the unconfined and sedimentary Adamantina Aquifer in Urânia, Brazil. A monitoring station, consisting of an 11.2 m well (1.8 m in diameter) with an array of 12 tensiometers and 12 suction lysimeters, was installed to monitor the shallow unsaturated zone from 0.5 to 9 m depth. A monitoring well was also installed below the water level to monitor the shallow aquifer. High amounts of ammonium (up to 96 mg/L NH4+-N) and nitrate (up to 458 mg/L NO3−-N) were observed in the unsaturated zone porewater which is comparable to active septic systems effluents. The distribution of NO3−, Cl− and Na+, typical constituents of sewage effluents, varied seasonally and spatially, which is correlated with changes in infiltration rates between the wet and dry seasons and with hydraulic conductivity variations in interlayered sandy and clayey sediments. A detailed monitoring of porewater geochemistry demonstrated the occurrence of several important reactions affecting nitrogen dynamics in the unsaturated zone: i) oxidation of organic matter, ii) ammonification, iii) nitrification, iv) methanogenesis, v) denitrification and likely, vi) sulfate reduction. The changes in nitrogen compound distribution and δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 values in porewater, in association with the N2O concentration and δ15NN2O and δ18ON2O signatures in gas samples, indicate the occurrence of nitrification and denitrification, suggesting the coexistence of reducing and oxidizing microsites in the unsaturated zone. This study indicated that cesspits can generate a significant amount of nitrate even a few years after being inactivated which can represent a potential long-term source of nitrate to groundwater in highly populated areas.
Schlagworte: nitrogen , oxygen , geol , poll , gashead

Nitrogen and sulphur cycling in the saline coastal aquifer of Ferrara, Italy. A multi-isotope approach
Applied Geochemistry (2017)
M. Caschetto, N. Colombani, M. Mastrocicco, M. Petitta, R. Aravena

The origin of high ammonium and sulphate concentrations, characterizing the saline groundwater of the Po River floodplain coastal aquifer, are documented. A detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conceptual model is built up using a hydrochemical (major ions, DOC, DIC and methane) and isotopic (δ15NNO3, δ15NNH4, δ18ONO3, δ34SSO4, δ18OSO4 and δ13CDIC) approach. Based on previous hydrogeological investigations, two boreholes located in contrasting environments (urban and agricultural) have been sampled at high vertical resolution. Groundwater is mostly under reducing conditions, characterized by high DOC and DIC concentrations but low to moderate methane content. Dissolved ammonium, as high as 87.8 mgL−1, derives by the mineralization of N-organic rich fine sediments, as indicated by its N isotopic signatures (1÷3‰). Attenuation processes of ammonium are ruled by dilution and by partial nitrification, supported by the enrichment in δ15NNH4 (∼+7‰). Apart from dilution/oxidation processes, the positive correlation between δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 agreed with the occurrence of denitrification in the shallow part of the aquifer. δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 data highlight that oxidation of pyrite occurs but is not necessarily linked to nitrate removal. The isotope data showed that sulphate (>2500 mgL−1) is of marine origin. In the deeper part of the aquifer, sulphur and oxygen isotopes enrichment patterns, demonstrated that sulphate reduction (SR) occurs in the aquifer and it is also possible that SR occurred in the underlying clay units. δ13CDIC pattern toward depleted δ13CDIC values even as low as −40.4‰ documented the occurrence of SR mediated by organic carbon and SR coupled to oxidation of methane (AOM) are involved in the sulphur and carbon cycles. The present study shows the advantage of using stable isotopes complemented with geochemical data to characterize the solutes' origins, both natural and anthropogenic, and giving insights on biogeochemical transformations involving nitrogen, sulphur and carbon in coastal sediments.
Schlagworte: nitrogen , oxygen , geol , gashead

A high-resolution temporal record of environmental changes in the Eastern Caribbean (Guadeloupe) from 40 to 10 ka BP
Quaternary Science Reviews (2017)
Aurélien Royer, Bruno Malaizé, Christophe Lécuyer, Alain Queffelec, Karine Charlier, Thibaut Caley, Arnaud Lenoble

In neotropical regions, fossil bat guano accumulated over time as laminated layers in caves, hence providing a high-resolution temporal record of terrestrial environmental changes. Additionally, cave settings have the property to preserve such organic sediments from processes triggered by winds (deflation, abrasion and sandblasting) and intense rainfall (leaching away). This study reports both stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of frugivorous bat guano deposited in a well-preserved stratigraphic succession of Blanchard Cave on Marie-Galante, Guadeloupe. These isotopic data are discussed with regard to climate changes and its specific impact on Eastern Caribbean vegetation during the Late Pleistocene from 40 to 10 ka cal. BP. Guano δ13C values are higher than modern ones, suggesting noticeable vegetation changes. This provides also evidence for overall drier environmental conditions during the Pleistocene compared to today. Meanwhile, within this generally drier climate, shifts between wetter and drier conditions can be observed. Large temporal amplitudes in both δ13C and δ15N variations reaching up to 5.9‰ and 16.8‰, respectively, also indicate these oceanic tropical environments have been highly sensitive to regional or global climatic forcing. Stable isotope compositions of bat guano deposited from 40 to 35 ka BP, the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger-Dryas reveal relatively wet environmental conditions whereas, at least from the end of the Heinrich event 1 and the Bølling period the region experienced drier environmental conditions. Nevertheless, when considering uncertainties in the model age, the isotopic record of Blanchard Cave show relatively similar variations with known proxy records from the northern South America and Central America, suggesting thus that the Blanchard Cave record is a robust proxy of past ITCZ migration. Teleconnections through global atmospheric pattern suggest that islands of the eastern Caribbean Basin could be also under the influence of a bipolar temperature gradients that impact the mean location of the ITCZ, with a Southern Hemisphere imprint during the glacial period and a more significant role of Northern Hemisphere during the last deglaciation.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , geol , clim , elem

Isotope constraints on seasonal dynamics of dissolved and particulate N in the Pearl River Estuary, South China
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1970)
Feng Ye, Guodong Jia, Luhua Xie, Gangjian Wei, Jie Xu

Isotope measurements were performed on dissolved NO3−, NH4+ and suspended particulate total N along a salinity gradient in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) to investigate seasonal changes in main N sources and its biogeochemical processing under the influence of monsoon climate. Our data revealed that municipal sewage and re-mineralized soil organic N were the major sources of DIN (NO3− and/or NH4+) in freshwater during winter and summer, respectively, whereas phytoplankton biomass was a major component of PN in both seasons. In low salinity waters (<2–3), nitrification was proved to be a significant NO3− source via NH4+ consumption, with N isotope effects of −15.3‰ in summer and −23.7‰ in winter for NH4+ oxidation. The contribution of nitrification to the total NO3− pool was smaller in summer than in winter, most likely due to freshwater dilution. At mid-salinities (3–20), δ15N values of PN were similar to those of NO3− and NH4+ in summer, reflecting a strong coupling between assimilation and remineralization. In winter, however, higher δ15NNH4 but lower δ15NNO3 than δ15NPN were observed, even though δ15NPN was similar between summer and winter. Intense sediment-water interaction and resuspension of sediments during winter appeared largely responsible for the decoupling. At high salinities, the greater enrichment in δ18ONO3 than in δ15NNO3 (up to 15.6‰) in winter suggests that atmospheric deposition may contribute to NO3− delivery during the dry season. Overall, these results show the importance of seasonal variability in physical forcing on biological N sources and its turnover processes in the highly dynamic river-dominated estuary
Schlagworte: nitrogen , oxygen , geol , gashead

Gradual and sustained carbon dioxide release during Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a
Nature Geoscience (2016)
B. D. A. Naafs, J. M. Castro, G. A. De Gea, M. L. Quijano, D. N. Schmidt, R. D. Pancost

During the Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a, about 120 million years ago, black shales were deposited in all the main ocean basins1. The event was also associated with elevated sea surface temperatures2, 3 and a calcification crisis in calcareous nannoplankton4. These environmental changes have been attributed to variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations2, 3, 5, 6, but the evolution of the carbon cycle during this event is poorly constrained. Here we present records of atmospheric CO2 concentrations across Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a derived from bulk and compound-specific δ13C from marine rock outcrops in southern Spain and Tunisia. We find that CO2 concentrations doubled in two steps during the oceanic anoxic event and remained above background values for approximately 1.5–2 million years before declining. The rise of CO2 concentrations occurred over several tens to hundreds of thousand years, and thus was unlikely to have resulted in any prolonged surface ocean acidification, suggesting that CO2 emissions were not the primary cause of the nannoplankton calcification crisis. We find that the period of elevated CO2 concentrations coincides with a shift in the oceanic osmium-isotope inventory7 associated with emplacement of the Ontong Java Plateau flood basalts, and conclude that sustained volcanic outgassing was the primary source of carbon dioxide during Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a.
Schlagworte: carbon , geol , clim , elem , gaschrom

Historic commodity of sulfur prevailed during the early to middle 19th century in Japan: A stable isotopic analysis for tracing the provenance
Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports (2016)
Chitoshi Mizota, Toshiro Yamanaka, Ryoko Furukawa, Yuki Furukawa

Demands for native volcanic sulfur as one of the ingredients of gunpowder reached a maximum during the early to middle 19th century, when abrupt changes in the political regime occurred in Japan. The historic commodity of sulfur prevailing during this time was analyzed for stable isotopic ratios (expressed as δ34S) to examine the provenance. The sampled sulfur involves the Siebold collection (acquisition by P. F. von Siebold in Nagasaki, northern Kyushu and kept in Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands) and Egawa library (Nirayama, central Japan) for which exact location of the origin is ambiguous or absent. The sulfur isotopic data were evaluated by comparison with the revised database for the spatial distribution of δ34S values of operative sulfur mines throughout the Japanese archipelagos. With a few exceptions, the commodity sulfur was transported through short-distance marketing systems within close proximity to Nagasaki and Nirayama.

Carbon dioxide, ground air and carbon cycling in Gibraltar karst
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2016)
D.P. Mattey, T.C. Atkinson, J.A. Barker, R. Fisher, J-P. Latin, R. Durell, M. Ainsworth

We put forward a general conceptual model of CO2 behaviour in the vadose zone of karst aquifers, based on physical principles of air flow through porous media and caves, combined with a geochemical interpretation of cave monitoring data. This ‘Gibraltar model’ links fluxes of water, air and carbon through the soil with the porosity of the vadose zone, the circulation of ground air and the ventilation of caves. Gibraltar hosts many natural caves whose locations span the full length and vertical range of the Rock. We report results of an 8-year monitoring study of carbon in soil organic matter and bedrock carbonate, dissolved inorganic carbon in vadose waters, and gaseous CO2 in soil, cave and ground air. Results show that the regime of cave air CO2 results from the interaction of cave ventilation with a reservoir of CO2-enriched ground air held within the smaller voids of the bedrock. The pCO2 of ground air, and of vadose waters that have been in close contact with it, are determined by multiple factors that include recharge patterns, vegetation productivity and root respiration, and conversion of organic matter to CO2 within the soil, the epikarst and the whole vadose zone. Mathematical modelling and field observations show that ground air is subject to a density-driven circulation that reverses seasonally, as the difference between surface and underground temperatures reverses in sign. The Gibraltar model suggests that cave air pCO2 is not directly related to CO2 generated in the soil or the epikarstic zone, as is often assumed. Ground air CO2 formed by the decay of organic matter (OM) washed down into the deeper unsaturated zone is an important additional source of pCO2. In Gibraltar the addition of OM-derived CO2 is the dominant control on the pCO2 of ground air and the Ca-hardness of waters within the deep vadose zone. The seasonal regime of CO2 in cave air depends on the position of a cave in relation to the density-driven ground air circulation pattern which is itself determined by the topography, as well as by the high-permeability conduits for air movement provided by caves themselves. In the steep topography of Gibraltar, caves in the lower part of the Rock act as outflow conduits for descending ground air in summer, and so have higher pCO2 in that season. Caves in the upper Rock have high pCO2 in winter, when they act as outflow conduits for rising currents of CO2-enriched ground air. Understanding seasonal flows of ground air in the vadose zone, together with the origins and seasonal regimes of CO2 in cave air underpins robust interpretation of speleothem-based climate proxy records.
Schlagworte: carbon , geol , clim , gashead

Open system sulphate reduction in a diagenetic environment – isotopic analysis of barite (δ34S and δ18O) and pyrite (δ34S) from the Tom and Jason Late Devonian Zn-Pb-Ba deposits, Selwyn Basin, Canada
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2016)
J.M. Magnall, S.A. Gleeson, R.A. Stern, R.J. Newton, S.W. Poulton, S. Paradis

Highly positive δ34S values in sulphide minerals are a common feature of shale hosted massive sulphide deposits (SHMS). Often this is attributed to near quantitative consumption of seawater sulphate, and for Paleozoic strata of the Selwyn Basin (Canada), this is thought to occur during bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR) in a euxinic water column. In this study, we focus on drill-core samples of sulphide and barite mineralisation from two Late Devonian SHMS deposits (Tom and Jason, Macmillan Pass, Selwyn Basin). The paragenetic relationship between barite, pyrite and hydrothermal base metal sulphides has been determined using transmitted and reflected light microscopy, and backscatter electron imaging. The petrographic framework provides context for in-situ isotopic microanalysis (secondary ion mass spectrometry; SIMS) of barite and pyrite. These data are supplemented by analyses of δ34S values for bulk rock pyrite (n = 37) from drill-core samples of un-mineralised (barren), siliceous mudstone, to provide a means by which to evaluate the mass balance of sulphur in the host rock. Three generations of barite have been identified, all of which pre-date hydrothermal input. Isotopically, the three generations of barite have overlapping distributions of δ34S and δ18O values (+22.5‰ to +33.0‰ and +16.4‰ to +18.3‰, respectively) and are consistent with an origin from modified Late Devonian seawater. Radiolarian tests, enriched in barium, are abundant within the siliceous mudstones, providing evidence that primary barium enrichment was associated with biologic activity. We therefore propose that barite formed following remobilisation of productivity-derived barium within the sediment, and precipitated within diagenetic pore fluids close to the sediment water interface. Two generations of pyrite are texturally associated with barite: framboidal pyrite (py-I), which has negative δ34S values (-23‰ to -28‰; n = 9), and euhedral pyrite (py-II), which has markedly more positive δ34S values (+8‰ to +26‰; n = 86). We argue that stratiform pyrite and barite developed along diagenetic redox fronts, where the isotopic relationships (δ34Spyrite ≈ δ34Sbarite) are explained by anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulphate reduction (AOM-SR). Furthermore, the relatively narrow distribution of δ34Sbarite values are consistent with an open system model of sulphate reduction, in which reduced sulphur generation occurs predominantly via AOM-SR. Importantly, hydrothermal sulphides (pyrite, sphalerite and galena) all post-date this diagenetic barite-pyrite assemblage, and textural and mineralogical evidence indicates barite replacement to be an important process during hydrothermal mineralisation. Neither the textures nor the documented isotopic relationships can be produced by processes operating in a euxinic water column, which represents a major departure from the conventional model for SHMS at Macmillan Pass. We suggest that positive δ34S values in sulphides, a common feature of SHMS systems both in the Selwyn Basin and throughout the geologic record, could be linked to AOM-SR. At Macmillan Pass, positive δ34Spyrite values developed during open system diagenesis, which was critical for rapid sulphur cycling and the development of an effective metal trap.
Schlagworte: oxygen , sulfur , geol , elem