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824 Ergebnisse:

Assessment of coral δ44/40Ca as a paleoclimate proxy in the Great Barrier Reef of Australia
Chemical Geology (2016)
Xuefei Chen, Wenfeng Deng, Hongli Zhu, Zhaofeng Zhang, Gangjian Wei, Malcolm T. McCulloch

The Ca isotopic composition (δ44/40Ca) in a Porites spp. coral from the Great Barrier Reef was analyzed at monthly intervals for two consecutive years. It was found that variations in skeletal δ44/40Ca values over the 2-year period are slightly greater than the analytical precision of the measurements, although other coralline geochemical records (i.e., δ13C, δ18O, δ11B and Sr/Ca ratios) show remarkable variations. To evaluate the potential of δ44/40Ca as a paleoclimate proxy in corals, we compared δ44/40Ca with other well-established indicators, and found that δ44/40Ca values show little relationship to δ18O, Sr/Ca, Δδ18O, or δ11B values, thus suggesting that the influence of seawater temperature, seawater pH and river inputs on skeletal δ44/40Ca is limited or overwhelmed by other factors. However, skeletal δ44/40Ca values are significantly related to δ13C values (r=0.46, p<0.05; n=27), thus indicating that Ca isotopic fractionation in corals is subjected to vital effect. The strong influence of biogenic factors on δ44/40Ca in corals, limit the applicability of coral δ44/40Ca to paleoclimate reconstruction.
Schlagworte: carbon , oxygen , geol , clim , mulitcarb

Morphological and genetic identification and isotopic study of the hair of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea Goldfuss, 1810) from the Malyi Anyui River (Chukotka, Russia)
Quaternary Science Reviews (2016)
O.F. Chernova, I.V. Kirillova, B. Shapiro, F.K. Shidlovskiy, A.E.R. Soares, V.A. Levchenko, F. Bertuch

We present the first detailed analyses of the preserved hair of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea Goldfuss, 1810). The hair was found in association with a skeleton that was recovered recently from perennially frozen Pleistocene sediments in the lower reaches of the Malyi Anyui River (Chukotka, Russia). We extract mitochondrial DNA from the hair to confirm its taxonomic identity, and perform detailed morphological analyses of the color and structure of the hair using light optical microscopy and SEM. In addition, we compare the cave lion hair to hair taken from the back and mane of an African lion. We find that cave lion hair is similar but not identical to that of the present-day lion. In addition to slightly different coloration, cave lions had a very thick and dense undercoat comprising closed and compressed wavy downy hair with a medulla. In addition, while the microstructures of the medulla and cortex of cave lion hair are similar in extinct and living lions, the cuticular scales of cave lion hair are higher than those in living lions, suggesting that cave lion hair is stronger and more robust than that of living lions. We hypothesize that the differences between cave lion hair and present-day lion hair may be due to adaptations of cave lions to the harsh climatic and environmental conditions of the Pleistocene Ice Ages.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , arch , elem

Phosphogenesis associated with the Shuram Excursion: Petrographic and geochemical observations from the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation of South China
Sedimentary Geology (2016)
Huan Cui, Shuhai Xiao, Chuanming Zhou, Yongbo Peng, Alan J. Kaufman, Rebecca Plummer

The Ediacaran Period witnessed one of the largest phosphogenic events in Earth's history. Coincidently, some phosphorite deposits in South China are associated with the largest carbon isotope negative excursion in Earth history (i.e., Shuram Excursion), suggesting an intimate coupling of the biogeochemical carbon and phosphorous cycles. However, the geomicrobiological linkage between these anomalies remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the petrography and geochemistry of phosphorite samples collected from the uppermost Doushantuo Formation in South China. Carbon isotope compositions of authigenic calcite cements and nodules in the phosphorites samples are as low as −34‰ (V-PDB). Petrographic and geochemical investigations indicate that the 13C-depleted carbonates likely formed as the result of microbial sulfate reduction that released phosphorous from iron oxyhydroxide, concentrating phosphorous in pore waters, and thereby promoting phosphate mineralization. The timing of this event appears to coincide with enhanced sulfate delivery to seawater through continental weathering. The basin-scale distribution of Doushantuo phosphorites suggests a redox control associated with the availability of iron oxyhydroxide and the recycling of pore water phosphorous. Both inner and outer shelf regions were likely characterized by an oxic water column, and were the main loci for phosphogenesis; on the contrary, intra-shelf and slope regions, which are lean in phosphorite, were subjected to euxinic or ferruginous water column conditions. The intimate coupling between Ediacaran phosphogenesis and the Shuram Excursion suggests strong links among seawater redox conditions, carbon–sulfur–phosphorous cycling, and fossil phosphatization. Increased microbial sulfate reduction driven by enhanced sulfate reservoir in the Ediacaran ocean may played an essential role on these biogeochemical events.

Seasonal Variation of Harbor Seal's Diet from the Wadden Sea in Relation to Prey Availability.
PloS one (2016)
Camille de la Vega, Benoit Lebreton, Ursula Siebert, Gael Guillou, Krishna Das, Ragnhild Asmus, Harald Asmus

The Wadden Sea has an important role for marine mammals in terms of resting, nursing and foraging. Harbor seal is the most abundant marine mammal species in this area. The use of the food resources of the Wadden Sea by seals is not clear, and previous studies showed that this species can travel kilometers away from their haul-outs to forage in the North Sea. In this study, we analyzed the stable isotopes of vibrissae from 23 dead harbor seals found on the island of Sylt to investigate their diet. The predator´s carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions were compared to the compositions of different potential prey items from the Sylt-Rømø Bight and from the North Sea in order to study seasonal pattern in the diet and in the foraging location. In parallel, seasonal variation of abundance and biomass of the potential prey items from the Sylt-Rømø Bight were studied and compare to their contribution to the seal´s diet. The results revealed a change in the seal´s diet from pelagic sources in spring to a benthic based diet in summer, and an increasing use of the North Sea resources in fall and winter in accordance with the seasonal variation of the availability of prey in the Sylt-Rømø Bight.

Production and turnover of ectomycorrhizal extramatrical mycelial biomass and necromass under elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.
The New phytologist (2016)
Alf Ekblad, Anna Mikusinska, Göran I Ågren, Lorenzo Menichetti, Håkan Wallander, Rytas Vilgalys, Adam Bahr, Ulrika Eriksson

Extramatrical mycelia (EMM) of ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests, but poor knowledge about EMM biomass and necromass turnovers makes the quantification of their role problematic. We studied the impacts of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on EMM production and turnover in a Pinus taeda forest. EMM C was determined by the analysis of ergosterol (biomass), chitin (total bio- and necromass) and total organic C (TOC) of sand-filled mycelium in-growth bags. The production and turnover of EMM bio- and necromass and total C were estimated by modelling. N fertilization reduced the standing EMM biomass C to 57% and its production to 51% of the control (from 238 to 122 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) ), whereas elevated CO2 had no detectable effects. Biomass turnover was high (˜13 yr(-1) ) and unchanged by the treatments. Necromass turnover was slow and was reduced from 1.5 yr(-1) in the control to 0.65 yr(-1) in the N-fertilized treatment. However, TOC data did not support an N effect on necromass turnover. An estimated EMM production ranging from 2.5 to 6% of net primary production stresses the importance of its inclusion in C models. A slow EMM necromass turnover indicates an importance in building up forest humus.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , soil , elem

Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus).
Environmental research (2016)
Ulrika Eriksson, Anna Roos, Ylva Lind, Kjell Hope, Alf Ekblad, Anna Kärrman

The level of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in freshwater and terrestrial Swedish environments in 2013/2014 was assessed by analyzing a range of perfluorinated alkyl acids, fluorotelomer acids, sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols and polyfluoralkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) in predator bird eggs. Stable isotopes ((13)C and (15)N) were analyzed to elucidate the dietary source. The tawny owl (Strix aluco, n=10) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, n=40), two terrestrial species, and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus, n=30), a freshwater specie were included. In addition, a temporal trend (1997-2001, 2008-2009, 2013) in osprey was studied as well. The PFAS profile was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in eggs from osprey and tawny owl, while for common kestrel perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑PFCA) exceeded the level of PFOS. PFOS concentration in osprey eggs remained at the same level between 1997 and 2001 and 2013. For the long-chained PFCAs, there were a significant increase in concentrations in osprey eggs between 1997 and 2001 and 2008-2009. The levels of PFOS and PFCAs were about 10 and five times higher, respectively, in osprey compared to tawny owl and common kestrel. Evidence of direct exposure from PFCA precursor compounds to birds in both freshwater and terrestrial environment was observed. Low levels of diPAPs were detected in a few samples of osprey (<0.02-2.4ng/g) and common kestrel (<0.02-0.16ng/g) eggs, and 6:2 FTSA was detected in a majority of the osprey eggs (<6.3-52ng/g). One saturated telomer acid (7:3 FTCA), which is a transformation marker from precursor exposure, was detected in all species (<0.24-2.7ng/g). The (15)N data showed higher levels in osprey eggs compared to tawny owl and common kestrel, indicating that they feed on a 2-3 times higher trophic level. We conclude that ospreys are continuously exposed to PFAS at levels where adverse toxic effects have been observed in birds.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , ecol , elem

Ecological stoichiometry controls the transformation and retention of plant-derived organic matter to humus in response to nitrogen fertilisation
Soil Biology and Biochemistry (2016)
Damien Finn, Kathryn Page, Kerrilyn Catton, Marco Kienzle, Fiona Robertson, Roger Armstrong, Ram Dalal

Carbon (C) sequestration in soils is a means for increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and is a potential tool for climate change mitigation. One recommended management practice to increase SOC stocks is nitrogen (N) fertilisation, however examples of positive, negative or null SOC effects in response to N addition exist. We evaluated the relative importance of plant molecular structure, soil physical properties and soil ecological stoichiometry in explaining the retention of SOC with and without N addition. We tracked the transformation of 13C pulse-labelled buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) material to the <53 μm silt + clay soil organic C fraction, hereafter named “humus”, over 365-days of incubation in four contrasting agricultural soils, with and without urea-N addition. We hypothesised that: a) humus retention would be soil and litter dependent; b) humus retention would be litter independent once litter C:N ratios were standardised with urea-N addition; and c) humus retention would be improved by urea-N addition. Two and three-way factorial analysis of variance indicated that 13C humus was consistently soil and litter dependent, even when litter C:N ratios were standardised, and that the effect of urea-N addition on 13C humus was also soil and litter dependent. A boosted regression analysis of the effect of 44 plant and soil explanatory variables demonstrated that soil biological and chemical properties had the greatest relative influence on 13C humus. Regression tree analyses demonstrated that the greatest gains in 13C humus occurred in soils of relatively low total organic C, dissolved organic C and microbial biomass C (MBC), or with a combination of relatively high MBC and low C:N ratio. The greatest losses in 13C humus occurred in soils with a combination of relatively high MBC and low total N or increasing C:N ratio. We conclude that soil variables involved in soil ecological stoichiometry exert a greater relative influence on incorporating organic matter as humus compared to plant molecular structure and soil physical properties. Furthermore, we conclude that the effect of N fertilisation on humus retention is dependent upon soil ecological stoichiometry.

Exploring Accumulation Rates of Shell Deposits Through Seasonality Data
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory (2016)
Niklas Hausmann, Matthew Meredith-Williams

Shell middens are often analysed as the result of short- or long-term depositional activities. In order to confidently interpret such deposits, it is necessary to have accurate estimations of shell accumulation rates, most commonly produced by radiocarbon dates. This paper introduces the application of seasonality data as a temporal measurement of short-term shell deposition. This gives access to an additional estimate of shell accumulation rates, which work on a shorter timescale than can be analysed through radiocarbon dating. We focus on shell deposits on the Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia, which comprise over 3000 shell midden sites dating to the mid-Holocene (6500–4500 calBP). One site (JW1727) was chosen to (1) explore the potential of seasonality data to reconstruct accumulation rates, (2) analyse the intensity of exploitation and (3) assess the visibility of short-term shellfish deposits. Stable oxygen isotope values (δ18O) were obtained from the marine gastropod Conomurex fasciatus (Born 1778), representing 72 % of the shell weight of JW1727, to reconstruct season of capture. Seasonality data was grouped by their spatial distribution, which allowed successive episodes of deposition within a stratigraphic sequence to be connected. This allowed us to make an estimation of exploited shell meat of ∼200 kg over a 7-month period (∼400 shells/day). We argue that excavation methods and low resolution stratigraphic data cause imprecision in the seasonality data and the low visibility of rapidly accumulated shell deposits. Also, an increase of analysed shells per layer is key to understanding the seasonal brickwork of more middens in the future
Schlagworte: carbon , oxygen , geol , ocea , clim , mulitcarb

Petrologic and stable isotopic study of the Walloon Coal Measures, Surat Basin, Queensland: peat accumulation under changing climate and base level
International Journal of Coal Geology (2016)
A. Hentschel, J.S. Esterle, S.D. Golding, D.V. Pacey

The Late Jurassic Walloon Subgroup (recently dated as Oxfordian) is a productive, subbituminous coal seam gas source in the Surat Basin and can be subdivided from bottom to top into the Taroom Coal Measures, the Tangalooma Sandstone, the Lower and Upper Juandah Coal Measures, which have different coal character. The lower Taroom coals are commonly thick, associated with sandstones and interpreted to form as base level is rising, creating sodden anoxic conditions for peat accumulation. The middle Tangalooma to Lower Juandah contains fewer and thinner coals, and transitions upwards from a sandstone to siltstone dominated sequence responding to inundation with the development of floodplain lakes. The strata then coarsen upward in both grain size and coal thickness in the Upper Juandah Coal Measures, which may be eroded by an overlying unit, the Springbok Sandstone. This unconformable surface is basin wide and depending on age, can be tied into global changes in climate and base level. Existing models for peat growth under changing base level and the variability in terms of the conditions of peat formation through time, as well as throughout the basin, are tested. Environment of peat deposition and changes therein, are investigated by petrographic analysis of the Walloon coals, coupled with high resolution lithotype logging of core and organic stable carbon isotope analysis. Fine microlayering and abundance of root suberinite, telo- and detrovitrinite indicate precursory peat formation in a mostly herbaceous marsh to fen environment, in which bigger trees are either infrequent or absent, except for the lower seams of the Taroom Coal Measures and the upper seams of the Lower Juandah Coal Measures, where bright bands are thicker (≥10mm) and more frequent. No extended periods of dehydration-oxidation (<1vol.% mmf inertinite group macerals) are indicated until the deposition of the Upper Juandah Coal Measures that contain greater amounts (5 to 15vol.% mmf with rare 68vol.%) of inertinite group macerals. Suberinite is interpreted to reflect dense root mats that are resistant to decay by microbial activity. They leave behind their suberinised exoderms, which originally helped wetland plants to protect themselves from deleterious solutes or in case of a change to drier conditions provided protection from desiccation. The most common inertinite maceral found in the Upper Juandah Coal Measures is inertodetrinite, associated with detrovitrinite. After bush or swamp fires, pieces of charcoal on dried out peat surfaces are easily blown away by the wind and accumulate with sediment in standing water. Fusinites and semifusinites are mainly associated with telovitrinites and are likely to be the result of desiccation and (fungal) mouldering in addition to fire. Stable carbon isotopes of coal show a distinct positive shift in the Lower Juandah Coal Measures that sets in well before the increased inertinite content in the Upper Juandah Coal Measures. The enrichment in 13C could be linked to a change in climate during the high stand depositional cycle, marking the onset of late stage falling, where base level begins to drop, later creating exposures and water stress. A shift to a less humid climate in the Upper Juandah Coal Measures could have favoured the conditions for desiccation, mouldering and bush fires, which is reflected in the coal's maceral composition. The Surat Basin δ13C isotope trend follows the global trend found in marine carbonate samples from the same age interval that corroborates increasing enrichment towards the top of the coal measures (approximately middle Oxfordian), followed by a shift to more negative compositions, which corresponds to the onset of the Springbok Sandstone deposition on an unconformable surface.

CO2-dependent carbon isotope fractionation in dinoflagellates relates to their inorganic carbon fluxes
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (2016)
Mirja Hoins, Tim Eberlein, Dedmer B. Van de Waal, Appy Sluijs, Gert-Jan Reichart, Björn Rost

Carbon isotope fractionation (εp) between the inorganic carbon source and organic matter has been proposed to be a function of pCO2. To understand the CO2-dependency of εp and species-specific differences therein, inorganic carbon fluxes in the four dinoflagellate species Alexandrium fundyense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum have been measured by means of membrane-inlet mass spectrometry. In-vivo assays were carried out at different CO2 concentrations, representing a range of pCO2 from 180 to 1200μatm. The relative bicarbonate contribution (i.e. the ratio of bicarbonate uptake to total inorganic carbon uptake) and leakage (i.e. the ratio of CO2 efflux to total inorganic carbon uptake) varied from 0.2 to 0.5 and 0.4 to 0.7, respectively, and differed significantly between species. These ratios were fed into a single-compartment model, and εp values were calculated and compared to carbon isotope fractionation measured under the same conditions. For all investigated species, modeled and measured εp values were comparable (A. fundyense, S. trochoidea, P. reticulatum) and/or showed similar trends with pCO2 (A. fundyense, G. spinifera, P. reticulatum). Offsets are attributed to biases in inorganic flux measurements, an overestimated fractionation factor for the CO2-fixing enzyme RubisCO, or the fact that intracellular inorganic carbon fluxes were not taken into account in the model. This study demonstrates that CO2-dependency in εp can largely be explained by the inorganic carbon fluxes of the individual dinoflagellates.