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824 Ergebnisse:

Photoacclimatory Responses of Zostera marina in the Intertidal and Subtidal Zones.
PloS one (2016)
Sang Rul Park, Sangil Kim, Young Kyun Kim, Chang-Keun Kang, Kun-Seop Lee

Photoacclimatory responses of the seagrass Zostera marina in the intertidal and subtidal zones were investigated by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic pigments, leaf δ13C values, and shoot morphology in two bay systems. Intertidal plants had higher carotenoid concentrations than subtidal plants to avoid photodamage under excess light conditions during the day. The maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and minimum saturation irradiance (Ek) of the intertidal plants were higher than those of the subtidal plants, whereas photosynthetic efficiency (α) and maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) were higher in subtidal plants. The intertidal plants also had significantly greater Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) than that of the subtidal plants. These results suggest that the subtidal plants photoacclimated to use limited light more efficiently, and the intertidal plants exhibited photosynthetic responses to minimize photodamage at excess irradiance. The δ13C values of leaf tissues were more negative in the intertidal plants than those in the subtidal plants, suggesting that the intertidal plants used atmospheric or dissolved CO2 for photosynthesis during emersion. Effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm´) in the intertidal plants decreased more slowly after emersion than that in the subtidal plants, indicating higher desiccation tolerance of the intertidal plants. The intertidal plants also recovered more rapidly from desiccation damage than the subtidal plants, suggesting photosynthetic adaptation to desiccation stress. The photosynthetic plasticity of Z. marina in response to variable environmental conditions most likely allows this species to occur in the intertidal and subtidal zones.

Similar temperature responses suggest future climate warming will not alter partitioning between denitrification and anammox in temperate marine sediments.
Global change biology (2016)
Lindsay D Brin, Anne E Giblin, Jeremy J Rich

Removal of biologically available nitrogen (N) by the microbially mediated processes denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) affects ecosystem N availability. Although few studies have examined temperature responses of denitrification and anammox, previous work suggests that denitrification could become more important than anammox in response to climate warming. To test this hypothesis, we determined whether temperature responses of denitrification and anammox differed in shelf and estuarine sediments from coastal Rhode Island over a seasonal cycle. The influence of temperature and organic C availability was further assessed in a 12-week laboratory microcosm experiment. Temperature responses, as characterized by thermal optima (Topt ) and apparent activation energy (Ea ), were determined by measuring potential rates of denitrification and anammox at 31 discrete temperatures ranging from 3 to 59°C. With a few exceptions, Topt and Ea of denitrification and anammox did not differ in Rhode Island sediments over the seasonal cycle. In microcosm sediments, Ea was somewhat lower for anammox compared to denitrification across all treatments. However, Topt did not differ between processes, and neither Ea nor Topt changed with warming or carbon addition. Thus, the two processes behaved similarly in terms of temperature response, and this response was not influenced by warming. This led us to reject the hypothesis that anammox is more cold-adapted than denitrification in our study system. Overall, our study suggests that temperature responses of both processes can be accurately modeled for temperate regions in the future using a single set of parameters, which are likely not to change over the next century as a result of predicted climate warming. We further conclude that climate warming will not directly alter the partitioning of N flow through anammox and denitrification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Schlagworte: nitrogen , ocea , clim , gashead

Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Santonian Songliao Paleo-lake
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (2016)
Huairen Cao, Jianfang Hu, Ping’an Peng, Dangpeng Xi, Youjun Tang, Yan Lei, Andrea Shilling

The Late Cretaceous is often characterized as having a variable greenhouse climate, however, the relatively few continental sites preserving geologic records from this time exist limiting information on terrestrial climate and environments. Worldwide, the Songliao Basin (SLB) of northeastern China is one of the largest Cretaceous-age continental rift basins. Thus, this well-preserved lacustrine deposit provides a unique record of terrestrial paleoenvironmental conditions during the Cretaceous. Here, we report organic geochemical data from Late Cretaceous-age lacustrine deposits (lower Nenjiang Formation) from the eastern side of the SLB. Outcrop samples were collected from the Houjingou section and the following analyses performed: (1) total organic carbon (TOC) content and isotopic composition, (2) biomarker distribution, including the identification and determination of relative amounts of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and steranes, and (3) compound specific stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of n-alkanes. The biomarker distribution and stable carbon isotopic values (δ13C) of the TOC indicate organic matter (OM) from the uppermost section of the first member of the Nenjiang Formation (Upper K2n1) was mainly sourced from aquatic macrophytes and land plants. In the lower part of the second member of the Nenjiang Formation (Lower K2n2) the biomarker distribution and δ13C of both the TOC and n-alkanes indicate that OM was sourced from a mixture of algae, bacteria, and higher plants. As a result of marine transgression, seawater incursions, indicated by the presence of 24-n-propyl-cholestanes and 24-iso-propyl-cholestanes, occurred episodically in Lower K2n2. The negative hydrogen isotopic composition (δ2H) of short chain n-alkanes in Lower K2n2 indicate an extremely humid environment and it is likely that an influx of freshwater caused large-scale flooding of the Songliao Paleo-lake. High-resolution biomarker and stable isotope records from the Houjingou section demonstrate abrupt environmental changes in the Songliao Paleo-lake following seawater incursions during the Late Cretaceous.
Schlagworte: carbon , geol , clim , gaschrom

Identification of abiotic and biotic reductive dechlorination in a chlorinated ethene plume after thermal source remediation by means of isotopic and molecular biology tools
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology (2016)
Alice Badin, Mette M. Broholm, Carsten S. Jacobsen, Jordi Palau, Philip Dennis, Daniel Hunkeler

Thermal tetrachloroethene (PCE) remediation by steam injection in a sandy aquifer led to the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from aquifer sediments resulting in more reduced redox conditions, accelerated PCE biodegradation, and changes in microbial populations. These changes were documented by comparing data collected prior to the remediation event and eight years later. Based on the premise that dual C-Cl isotope slopes reflect ongoing degradation pathways, the slopes associated with PCE and TCE suggest the predominance of biotic reductive dechlorination near the source area. PCE was the predominant chlorinated ethene near the source area prior to thermal treatment. After thermal treatment, cDCE became predominant. The biotic contribution to these changes was supported by the presence of Dehalococcoides sp. DNA (Dhc) and Dhc targeted rRNA close to the source area. In contrast, dual C-Cl isotope analysis together with the almost absent VC 13C depletion in comparison to cDCE 13C depletion suggested that cDCE was subject to abiotic degradation due to the presence of pyrite, possible surface-bound iron (II) or reduced iron sulphides in the downgradient part of the plume. This interpretation is supported by the relative lack of Dhc in the downgradient part of the plume. The results of this study show that thermal remediation can enhance the biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes, and that this effect can be traced to the mobilisation of DOC due to steam injection. This, in turn, results in more reduced redox conditions which favor active reductive dechlorination and/or may lead to a series of redox reactions which may consecutively trigger biotically induced abiotic degradation. Finally, this study illustrates the valuable complementary application of compound-specific isotopic analysis combined with molecular biology tools to evaluate which biogeochemical processes are taking place in an aquifer contaminated with chlorinated ethenes.

The Late Cryogenian Warm Interval, NE Svalbard: chemostratigraphy and genesis
Precambrian Research (2016)
Ian J. Fairchild, Pierre Bonnand, Tesni Davies, Edward J. Fleming, Nathalie Grassineau, Galen P. Halverson, Michael J. Hambrey, Emily M. McMillan, Elizabeth McKay, Ian J. Parkinson, Carl T.E. Stevenson

The Late Cryogenian Warm Interval (LCWI) refers to a non-glacial interval that separates presumed representatives of the Sturtian and Marinoan panglaciations. Its duration is poorly constrained radiometrically and its deposits are relatively poorly known in most geographic regions. This paper aims to constrain the duration, palaeoenvironments and petrogenesis of such deposits in the classic region of NE Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The succession comprises a 200-205 m dolomitic shale (Macdonaldryggen Member, known as E3, of the Elbobreen Formation) overlain by oolitic dolomite Slangen Member (E4), 15-25 m thick, with limestone developed at top and base of E3 in the south of the area. The assumed age context of the succession has been confirmed by the presence of a typical Sturtian cap carbonate profile of negative to positive δ13C, and primary Sr isotope compositions of basal E3 limestones <0.7072 and of upper E3 limestones of 0.7076. At the base of E3, interstratification of cap carbonate with ice-rafted and redeposited glacial sediments occurs. Early diagenetic stabilization of carbonate mineralogy from a precursor, possibly ikaite, to calcite or dolomite is inferred. E3 is predominantly dolomitic silt-shale, with sub-millimetre lamination, lacking sand or current-related sedimentary structures. Thin fine laminae are partly pyritized and interpreted as microbial mats. Dolomite content is 25-50%, with δ13C values consistently around +4‰, a value attributed to buffering by dissolution of a precursor metastable carbonate phase. Local calcite cement associates with low δ13C values. The carbonates form silt-sized, chemically zoned rhombic crystals from an environment with dynamically changing Fe and Mn. Three-dimensional reconstructions of cm-scale disturbance structures indicate that they represent horizontally directed sock-like folds, developed by release of overpressure into thin surficial sediment overlying an early-cemented layer. A shoaling upwards unit near the top of E3 displays calcium sulphate pseudomorphs in dolomite in the north, but storm-dominated limestones in the south, both being overlain by peritidal oolitic dolomites, exposed under the succeeding Wilsonbreen glacial deposits. There is no Trezona δ13C anomaly, possibly implying top-truncation of the succession. Regular 0.5 m-scale sedimentary rhythms, reflecting subtle variations in sediment texture or composition occur throughout E3 and are interpreted as allocyclic. They are thought to be mainly primary in origin, locally modified slightly during early diagenetic cementation. Rhythms are proposed to represent ca. 18 kyr precession cycles, implying 6-8 Myr deposition between glaciations.
Schlagworte: carbon , geol , clim , gashead

Formation and evolution of solid bitumen during oil cracking
Marine and Petroleum Geology (2016)
Yongqiang Xiong, Wenmin Jiang, Xiaotao Wang, Yun Li, Yuan Chen, Li Zhang, Rui Lei, Ping’an Peng

Solid bitumen is widespread throughout lower Paleozoic paleo-reservoirs in southern China. However, the processes that control its formation and evolution remain unclear. Here, we document temporal changes in the yield and characteristics of solid bitumen generated during oil cracking using an experimental approach involving the anhydrous pyrolysis of crude oil. The results indicate that solid bitumen is predominantly produced in environments of high thermal maturity associated with the dry gas stage of oil cracking (i.e., during rapid methane generation and C2–C5 gaseous hydrocarbon destruction), with maximum solid bitumen yields up to about 42% of the original amount of crude oil. A near linear relationship exists between solid bitumen yields and methane abundance during the main stage of solid bitumen formation, although there is no clear variation in the δ13C values of solid bitumen produced at any stage of this process. This suggests that the isotopic composition and distribution of solid bitumen within a reservoir can be used to identify hydrocarbon sources, delineate the range of paleo-reservoirs, and assess the size of paleo-oil reservoirs and oil-cracked gas reservoirs within a basin.
Schlagworte: carbon , geol , oilg , gaschrom

Water circulation and governing factors in humid tropical river basins in the central Western Ghats, Karnataka, India.
Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM (2016)
M Tripti, L Lambs, G P Gurumurthy, I Moussa, K Balakrishna, M D Chadaga

RATIONALE: The small river basins in the narrow stretch of the Arabian Sea coast of southwest India experience high annual rainfall (800-8000 mm), with a higher proportion (85 %) during the summer monsoon period between June and September. This is due to a unique orographic barrier provided by the Western Ghats mountain belt (600-2600 m) for the summer monsoon brought by the southwesterly winds. This study is the first of a kind focusing on the water cycle with an intensive stable isotopes approach (samples of river water, groundwater, rainwater; seasonal and spatial sampling) in this part of the Western Ghats in Karnataka and also in the highest rainfall-receiving region (with places like Agumbe receiving 7000-8000 mm annual rainfall) in South India. In addition, the region lacks sustainable water budgeting due to high demographic pressure and a dry pre-monsoon season as the monsoon is mainly unimodal in this part of India, particularly close to the coast. METHODS: The stable isotopic compositions of groundwater, river water and rainwater in two tropical river basins situated approximately 60 km apart, namely the Swarna near Udupi and the Nethravati near Mangalore, were studied from 2010 to 2013. The δ(18) O and δ(2) H values of the water samples were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and the d-excess values calculated to better understand the dominant source of the water and the influence of evaporation/recycling processes. RESULTS: The water in the smaller area basin (Swarna basin) does not show seasonal variability in the δ(18) O values for groundwater and river water, having a similar mean value of -3.1 ‰. The d-excess value remains higher in both wet and dry seasons suggesting strong water vapor recycling along the foothills of the Western Ghats. In contrast, the larger tropical basin (Nethravati basin) displays specific seasonal isotopic variability. The observation of higher d-excess values in winter with lower δ(18) O values suggests an influence of northeast winter monsoon water in the larger basin. CONCLUSIONS: The narrow coastal strip to the west of the Western Ghats displays unique water characteristics in both tropical river basins investigated. For the smaller and hilly Swarna basin, the dense vegetation (wet canopies) could largely re-evaporate the (intercepted) rain, leading to no marked seasonal or altitude effect on the water isotope values within the basin. The larger Nethravati basin, which stretches farther into the foothills of the Western Ghats, receives winter monsoon water, and thus exhibits a clear seasonal variability in rainfall moisture sources. The degree of water vapor recycling in these wet tropical basins dominates the isotopic composition in this narrow coastal stretch of South India. An insight into the soil water contribution to the river water and groundwater, even in the rainfall-dependent tropical basins of South India, is provided in this study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Schlagworte: hydrogen , oxygen , geol , ocea , gashead

Impacts of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools sizes, stability, and turnover in a coastal salt marsh of eastern China
Ecological Engineering (2016)
Wen Yang, Shuqing An, Hui Zhao, Lingqian Xu, Yajun Qiao, Xiaoli Cheng

Plant invasion may impact ecosystem structure and function, and further affect soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics. However, the influence of plant invasion on soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools sizes, stability, and turnover in SOM of invaded ecosystems is not fully understood. In this study, soil C and N contents, and δ13C and δ15N values of free light fraction (LF), intra-aggregate particulate organic matter (iPOM) and mineral-associated organic matter (mSOM) were investigated in an invasive Spartina alterniflora community, adjacent bare flat and native Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis communities. Short-term S. alterniflora invasion significantly enhanced organic C and N contents in SOM, free LF, iPOM, mSOM compared with bare flat and increased the proportion of allocated C in iPOM compared with S. salsa and P. australis soils (0–0.30m depth). The proportion of the S. alterniflora-derived C in free LF and iPOM were significantly higher than that in mSOM, and the highest S. alterniflora-derived C content was found in iPOM of S. alterniflora soil. The most enriched δ15N values were found in S. alterniflora soil. Increased δ15N values and decreased C:N ratios from the free LF to iPOM to mSOM in S. alterniflora soil indicated a greater degree of decomposition. The results suggest that 10-year S. alterniflora invasion significantly alters soil organic C and N pools sizes and stability through changing plant residuals input, physical distribution of S. alterniflora-derived C and C turnover in SOM fractions.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , soil , geol , ecol , elem

Nanhuan manganese deposits within restricted basins of the southeastern Yangtze Platform, China: Constraints from geological and geochemical evidence
Ore Geology Reviews (2016)
Chengquan Wu, Zhengwei Zhang, Jiafei Xiao, Yazhou Fu, Shuxun Shao, Chaofei Zheng, Junhua Yao, Chaoyi Xiao

The Nanhuan manganese deposits in the southeastern Yangtze Platform occur in the black shale series in the lower part of the Datangpo Formation. In order to constrain the genesis of the deposits, a detailed study was undertaken that involved field observations, major and trace element analyses, organic carbon analyses, and isotope analyses (C, O, S). The major findings are as follows. (1) The ore-bearing rock series, morphology of the ore bodies, and characteristics of ores in several deposits are similar. The ore minerals are rhodochrosite and manganocalcite. The gangue minerals are mainly quartz, feldspar, dolomite, and illite. Minor apatite and bastnaesite occur in the manganese ores. (2) The ores are enriched in Ca and Mg, whereas they are depleted in Si, Al, K, and Ti compared to wall rocks. The ores normalized to average Post-Archean Australian shale (PAAS) are enriched in Co, Mo, and Sr. The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns for ores and wall rocks are between those of typical hydrogenous and hydrothermal type manganese deposits. Additionally, the ores have positive Ce anomalies with an average Ce/Ce* of 1.23 and positive Eu anomalies with an average Eu/Eu* of 1.18 (normalized to PAAS). (3) The average content of organic carbon is 2.21% in the samples, and the average organic carbon isotopic value (δ13CV-PDB) is −33.44‰. The average inorganic carbon isotopic value (δ13CV-PDB) of carbonates in Gucheng is −3.07‰, while the values are similar in the other deposits with an average of −8.36‰. The oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18OV-PDB) are similar in different deposits with an average of −7.72‰. (4) The sulfur isotopic values (δ34SV-CDT) of pyrite are very high and range from +37.9‰ to +62.6‰ (average of 52.7‰), which suggests that the pyrite was formed in restricted basins where sulfate replenishment was limited. The sulfate concentrations in the restricted basins were extremely low and enriched in δ34S, which resulted in the very high δ34S values for the pyrite that formed in the manganese deposits. Therefore, a terrigenous weathering origin for manganese can be excluded; otherwise, the sulfate would have been introduced into the basins together with terrigenous manganese, which would have decreased the δ34S values of pyrites. The manganese, which originated from hydrothermal processes, was enriched in the restricted and anoxic basins, and then, it was oxidized to manganese oxyhydroxide in the overlying oxic waters whereby the products precipitated into the sediments. The manganese oxyhydroxide in the sediment was then reduced to Mn2+ and released to the pore waters during the process of diagenesis. Some organic carbon was oxidized to CO32−, which made the depletion of 13C in manganese carbonates. Therefore, we suggest that the Nanhuan manganese deposits are hydrothermal–sedimentary/diagenetic type deposits.
Schlagworte: carbon , oxygen , geol , gashead

Morphological and Dietary Responses of Chipmunks to a Century of Climate Change.
Global change biology (2016)
Rachel E Walsh, Ana Paula A Assis, James L Patton, Gabriel Marroig, Todd E Dawson, Eileen A Lacey

Predicting how individual taxa will respond to climatic change is challenging, in part because the impacts of environmental conditions can vary markedly, even among closely related species. Studies of chipmunks (Tamias spp.) in Yosemite National Park provide an important opportunity to explore the reasons for this variation in response. While the alpine chipmunk (T. alpinus) has undergone a significant elevational range contraction over the past century, the congeneric and partially sympatric lodgepole chipmunk (T. speciosus) has not experienced an elevational range shift during this period. As a first step toward identifying the factors underlying this difference in response, we examined evidence for dietary changes and changes in cranial morphology in these species over the past century. Stable isotope analyses of fur samples from modern and historical museum specimens of these species collected at the same localities indicated that signatures of dietary change were more pronounced in T. alpinus, although diet breadth did not differ consistently between the study species. Morphometric analyses of crania from these specimens revealed significant changes in cranial shape for T. alpinus, with less pronounced changes in shape for T. speciosus; evidence of selection on skull morphology was detected for T. alpinus but not T. speciosus. These results are consistent with growing evidence that T. alpinus is generally more responsive to environmental change than T. speciosus but emphasize the complex and often geographically variable nature of such responses. Accordingly, future studies that make use of the taxonomically and spatially integrative approach employed here may prove particularly informative regarding relationships between environmental conditions, range changes, and patterns of phenotypic variation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , ecol , clim , elem