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824 Ergebnisse:

Measurements of 14C in ancient ice from Taylor Glacier, Antarctica constrain in situ cosmogenic 14CH4 and 14CO production rates
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2016)
Vasilii V. Petrenko, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Hinrich Schaefer, Andrew M. Smith, Tanner Kuhl, Daniel Baggenstos, Quan Hua, Edward J. Brook, Paul Rose, Robb Kulin, Thomas Bauska, Christina Harth, Christo Buizert, Anais Orsi, Guy Emanuele, James E. Lee, Gor

Carbon-14 (14C) is incorporated into glacial ice by trapping of atmospheric gases as well as direct near-surface in situ cosmogenic production. 14C of trapped methane (14CH4) is a powerful tracer for past CH4 emissions from “old” carbon sources such as permafrost and marine CH4 clathrates. 14C in trapped carbon dioxide (14CO2) can be used for absolute dating of ice cores. In situ produced cosmogenic 14C in carbon monoxide (14CO) can potentially be used to reconstruct the past cosmic ray flux and past solar activity. Unfortunately, the trapped atmospheric and in situ cosmogenic components of 14C in glacial ice are difficult to disentangle and a thorough understanding of the in situ cosmogenic component is needed in order to extract useful information from ice core 14C. We analyzed very large (≈1000kg) ice samples in the 2.26–19.53m depth range from the ablation zone of Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, to study in situ cosmogenic production of 14CH4 and 14CO. All sampled ice is >50ka in age, allowing for the assumption that most of the measured 14C originates from recent in situ cosmogenic production as ancient ice is brought to the surface via ablation. Our results place the first constraints on cosmogenic 14CH4 production rates and improve on prior estimates of 14CO production rates in ice. We find a constant 14CH4/14CO production ratio (0.0076±0.0003) for samples deeper than 3m, which allows the use of 14CO for correcting the 14CH4 signals for the in situ cosmogenic component. Our results also provide the first unambiguous confirmation of 14C production by fast muons in a natural setting (ice or rock) and suggest that the 14C production rates in ice commonly used in the literature may be too high.

American woodcock migratory connectivity as indicated by hydrogen isotopes
The Journal of Wildlife Management (2016)
Daniel S. Sullins, Warren C. Conway, David A. Haukos, Keith A. Hobson, Leonard I. Wassenaar, Christopher E. Comer, I-Kuai Hung

To identify factors contributing to the long-term decline of American woodcock, a holistic understanding of range-wide population connectivity throughout the annual cycle is needed. We used band recovery data and isotopic composition of primary (P1) and secondary (S13) feathers to estimate population sources and connectivity among natal, early fall, and winter ranges of hunter-harvested juvenile American woodcock. We used P1 feathers from known-origin pre-fledged woodcock (n = 43) to create a hydrogen δ2Hf isoscape by regressing δ2Hf against expected growing-season precipitation (δ2Hp). Modeled δ2Hp values explained 79% of the variance in P1 δ2Hf values, indicating good model fit for estimating woodcock natal origins. However, a poor relationship (r2 = 0.23) between known-origin, S13 δ2Hf values, and expected δ2Hp values precluded assignment of early fall origins. We applied the δ2Hf isoscape to assign natal origins using P1 feathers from 494 hunter-harvested juvenile woodcock in the United States and Canada during 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 hunting seasons. Overall, 64% of all woodcock origins were assigned to the northernmost (>44°N) portion of both the Central and Eastern Management Regions. In the Eastern Region, assignments were more uniformly distributed along the Atlantic coast, whereas in the Central Region, most woodcock were assigned to origins within and north of the Great Lakes region. We compared our origin assignments to spatial coverage of the annual American woodcock Singing Ground Survey (SGS) and evaluated whether the survey effectively encompasses the entire breeding range. When we removed the inadequately surveyed Softwood shield Bird Conservation Region (BCR) from the northern portion of the SGS area, only 48% of juvenile woodcock originated in areas currently surveyed by the SGS. Of the individuals assigned to the northernmost portions of the breeding range, several were harvested in the southern extent of the wintering range. Based upon this latitudinal winter stratification, we examined whether woodcock employed a leapfrog migration strategy. Using δ2Hf values and band-recovery data, we found some support for this migration strategy hypothesis but not as a singular explanation. The large harvest derivation of individuals from the northernmost portions of the breeding range, and the difference in breeding distributions within each Management Region should be considered in future range-wide conservation and harvest management planning for American woodcock
Schlagworte: hydrogen , ecol , elem

Enhanced terrestrial carbon preservation promoted by Reactive Iron in Deltaic Sediments
Geophysical Research Letters (2016)
Michael R. Shields, Thomas S. Bianchi, Yves Gélinas, Mead A. Allison, Robert R. Twilley

We examined the role of reactive iron (FeR) in preserving organic carbon (OC) across a subaerial chronosequence of the Wax Lake Delta, a prograding delta within the Mississippi River Delta complex. We found that ~15.0% of the OC was bound to FeR, and the dominant binding mechanisms varied from adsorption in the youngest subaerial region to coprecipitation at the older, vegetated sites. The δ13C of the iron-associated OC was more negative than the total OC (mean = −2.6‰), indicating greater preference for terrestrial material and/or compounds with more negative δ13C values. However, only the adsorbed OC displayed preferential binding of lignin phenols. We estimate that ~8% of the OC initially deposited in deltaic systems is bound to FeR (equivalent to 6 × 1012 gC yr−1), and this percentage increases postdepositionally, as coprecipitation of FeR and OC allows for an even greater amount of OC to be bound to FeR.
Schlagworte: carbon , soil , geol , elem

Long term repeated fire disturbance alters soil bacterial diversity but not the abundance in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest.
Scientific reports (2016)
Ju-Pei Shen, C R Chen, Tom Lewis

Effects of fire on biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystem are widely acknowledged, while few studies have focused on the bacterial community under the disturbance of long-term frequent prescribed fire. In this study, three treatments (burning every two years (B2), burning every four years (B4) and no burning (B0)) were applied for 38 years in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest. Results showed that bacterial alpha diversity (i.e. bacterial OTU) in the top soil (0-10 cm) was significantly higher in the B2 treatment compared with the B0 and B4 treatments. Non-metric multidimensional analysis (NMDS) of bacterial community showed clear separation of the soil bacterial community structure among different fire frequency regimes and between the depths. Different frequency fire did not have a substantial effect on bacterial composition at phylum level or bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Soil pH and C:N ratio were the major drivers for bacterial community structure in the most frequent fire treatment (B2), while other factors (EC, DOC, DON, MBC, NH4(+), TC and TN) were significant in the less frequent burning and no burning treatments (B4 and B0). This study suggested that burning had a dramatic impact on bacterial diversity but not abundance with more frequent fire.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , soil , elem

Fungal Communities in Soils: Soil Organic Matter Degradation.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) (2016)
Tomáš Větrovský, Martina Štursová, Petr Baldrian

Stable isotope probing (SIP) provides the opportunity to label decomposer microorganisms that build their biomass on a specific substrate. In combination with high-throughput sequencing, SIP allows for the identification of fungal community members involved in a particular decomposition process. Further information can be gained through gene-targeted metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, opening the possibility to describe the pool of genes catalyzing specific decomposition reactions in situ and to identify the diversity of genes that are expressed. When combined with gene descriptions of fungal isolates from the same environment, specific biochemical reactions involved in decomposition can be linked to individual fungal taxa. Here we describe the use of these methods to explore the cellulolytic fungal community in forest litter and soil.
Schlagworte: carbon , soil , elem , gashead

Biochar nutrient availability rather than its water holding capacity governs the growth of both C3 and C4 plants
Journal of Soils and Sediments (2016)
Yuzhe Wang, Lianwei Zhang, Hong Yang, Guijun Yan, Zhihong Xu, Chengrong Chen, Dongke Zhang

Purpose: Biochar has been suggested as a soil conditioner to improve soil fertility and crop productivity while simultaneously mitigate global climate change by storing carbon in the soil. This study investigated the effect of pine (Pinus radiata) biochar application on soil water availability, nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) pools and growth of C3 and C4 plants. Materials and methods: In a glasshouse pot trial, a pine biochar (untreated) and nutrient-enriched pine biochar were applied to a market garden soil with C3 (Spinacia oleracea L.) and C4 (Amaranthus paniculatus L.) plants at rates of 0, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 % (w/w). Plant biomass, soil pH, moisture content, water holding capacity (WHC), hot water extractable organic C (HWEOC), and total N (HWETN), total C and N, and their isotope compositions (δ 13C and δ 15N) of soils and plants were measured at the end of the experimentation. Results and discussion: The soil moisture content increased while plant biomass decreased with increasing untreated biochar application rates. The addition of nutrient-enriched biochar significantly improved plant biomass in comparison to the untreated biochar addition at most application rates. Biochar application also increased the levels of labile organic C and N pools as indicated by HWEOC and HWETN. Conclusions: The results suggested that the addition of pine biochar significantly improved soil water availability but not plant growth. The application of nutrient-enriched pine biochar demonstrated that the growth of C3 and C4 plants was governed by biochar nutrient availability rather than its water holding capacity under the pot trial condition.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , soil , elem

Origins of elements building travertine and tufa: New perspectives provided by isotopic and geochemical tracers
Sedimentary Geology (2016)
P.-A. Teboul, C. Durlet, E.C. Gaucher, A. Virgone, J.-P. Girard, J. Curie, B. Lopez, G.F. Camoin

Fluid/rock interaction represents a major process in the formation of calcitic or aragonitic travertine and tufa (CATT). In most cases, CATT is associated to limestone dissolution somewhere along the hydrogeological pathway. However, a wide array of other substratum (basalts, rhyolites, carbonatites, ultramafics, granites, dolomites, evaporites) can act as potential source of elements involved in the formation of CATT. This study reports on the evaluation of potential geochemical tracers linking CATT to their substratum, and unravelling the origin of elements. A large database was established from available literature data as well as new data acquired in the frame of this study for a set of Modern to Recent CATT (Ligurian ophiolites, Italy; the Chaine des Puys, Limagne graben and Paris Basin, France; Reunion Island, Indian Ocean; Jebel Oust, Tunisia). Four most reliable tracing methods are identified (1) δ13C and δ18O cross-plot allows distinguishing epigean (minδ13C=−27.2‰, maxδ13C=0.9‰, meanδ13C=−12.3‰ for N=314) from hypogean systems (minδ13C=−4‰, maxδ13C=11.7‰, meanδ13C=−2.87‰ for N=198). Very low δ13C values (<−12‰) and δ18O>−4‰ associated to negative δ13C values are specifically indicative of an ultramafic source rock. (2) Barium and strontium cross-plot helps to discriminate different groups of source rocks amongst the hypogean CATT: (i) source rocks composed of mixed limestones, evaporites, and dolomites are characterised by low barium (<100ppm) and high strontium (>400ppm) contents, (ii) mafic and granitic source rocks are undifferentiated and display similar barium (from 15 to 930ppm) and high strontium (>200ppm) contents, (iii) the carbonatite group is characterised by its exceptional high barium and strontium values. In epigean CATT, a pure limestone source rock usually relates to very low barium and strontium contents (<50ppm and <70ppm respectively), whereas mixed limestone, evaporite and dolomite source rocks generally display low strontium content (<580ppm) with higher barium content (>50ppm). (3) Relatively high beryllium content (>30ppm) in CATT seems to indicate a pure granitoid source. (4) High chromium concentrations (>20ppm) are systematically documented in Modern CATT located on an ultramafic substratum. The definition of diagnostic compositional fields for actively forming or recently formed CATT is influenced by many factors including water composition, water temperature, dissolved gas composition and concentration, biological activity, position in the sedimentary body and early diagenesis, in addition to substratum lithology. However, the results of this study illustrate that, despite these many factors, the combined use of Ba, Sr, Be, Cr, δ13C, and δ18O may be valuable to discriminate the rock lithology prevailing in the hydrogeological or palaeo-hydrogeological reservoir of CATT.
Schlagworte: carbon , oxygen , geol , gashead

Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community.
Scientific reports (2016)
Hongguang Yu, Zhiwei Wang, Zhichao Wu, Chaowei Zhu

Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology.

Feeding behaviour, predatory functional responses and trophic interactions of the invasive Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis ) and signal crayfish ( Pacifastacus leniusculus )
Freshwater Biology (2016)
Paula J Rosewarne, Robert J.G. Mortimer, Robert J. Newton, Christopher Grocock, Christopher D. Wing, Alison M. Dunn

Freshwaters are subject to particularly high rates of species introductions; hence, invaders increasingly co-occur and may interact to enhance impacts on ecosystem structure and function. As trophic interactions are a key mechanism by which invaders influence communities, we used a combination of approaches to investigate the feeding preferences and community impacts of two globally invasive large benthic decapods that co-occur in freshwaters: the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) and Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis).
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , ecol , elem

δ13C and Water Use Efficiency in the Glucose of Annual Pine Tree Rings as Ecological Indicators of the Forests in the Most Industrialized Part of Poland
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution (2016)
Barbara M. Sensuła

In this study, stable carbon isotope ratios in the glucose samples were extracted from annual pine tree rings as bio-indicators of contemporary environmental changes in heavily urbanized areas. The sampling sites were located in close proximity to point source pollution emitters, such as a heat and power plant “Łaziska” and steelworks “Huta Katowice” in Silesia (Poland). The analysed samples covered the time span from 1975 to 2012 AD, the time period of the development of industrialization and the modernization in the industrial sector in Poland, similarly as in Eastern Europe. This modernization was connected with EU legislation and the implementation of restrictive governmental regulations on emissions. The carbon isotope discrimination has been proposed as a method for evaluating water use efficiency. The measurements of carbon isotopes were carried out using the continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer coupled to the elemental analyser. The δ13C values were calibrated relative to the C-3 and C-5 international standards. Diffuse air pollution caused the variation in δ13C and iWUE (the ratio between CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance) dependency on the type of emitter and some local effects of other human activities. In this study, the first results of water use efficiency in glucose are presented. In the period of time from 1975 to 2012, the water use efficiency values increased from 98 to 122 μmol/mol.