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    Food Production

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    Food Adulteration

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    Food Provenance

Food Authenticity

As the supply chains that deliver food stuffs to our doors grow ever more complex, bringing incredible choice to consumers, so it becomes more difficult to ensure that we can trust those foods. Stable isotope analysis is a technique which can detect fraudulent adulteration or mislabelling of premium and protected foods. Looking at the unique isotope signature can accurately determine the true origin of a food stuff, guaranteeing the safety of the public as well as the future of these specialist and traditional foods that deserve our protection.

With the same stable isotope techniques the flavourings industry improves the protection of its products through multi-elemental isotopic fingerprinting to ensure that their products can be distinguished from their fraudulent counterparts. Stable isotope analysis can also be used to confirm the use of organic farming practices, or the addition of cheaper additives to a premium product, ultimately protecting both the consumer, and the reputation of genuine suppliers.

Fruits, Vegetables, Meats

Multi-elemental isotope analysis is able to bring a great deal of information about geographical origin and possible adulterations of premium food stuffs. Our high performance range of elemental analyzers (EA-IRMS) systems can rapidly analyse your samples thanks to our unique Advanced Purge and Trap (APT) technology which gives unbeatable gas separation, and with a 10 year limited furnace warranty you can depend on our instruments. 

Wines & Fruit Juices

Wines command a great premium depending on their geographic origin, or appellation as more commonly known. Fruit juice with no added water is preferential to juice from concentrate. To detect this, 18O and 2H isotope analysis allows the sample to be directly related to the origin thanks to the natural meteorological variation of the water in the source environment. Our iso FLOW system provides exceptional, high throughput analysis of these samples.

Honey

Honey is one of the top 5 most globally adulterated food stuffs and stable isotope analysis can help detect this adulteration. Our EA-IRMS systems allow customers to run method AOAC 998.12 for rapid detection of C4 sugar adulteration of honey. Our LC-IRMS systems allow even more sophisticated adulterations of C3 sugars to the honey by performing compound specific isotope analysis of the intrinsic fructose, glucose and higher sugars.

Food & Flavor publications using our instruments

Our customers use our instruments to do some amazing research in the food & flavor application field. To show you how they perform their research and how they use our IRMS instruments, we have collected a range of peer-reviewed publications which cite our products. You can find the citations below and then follow the links to the publishing journal should you wish to download the publication.

If you would like to investigate our available citations in more detail, or email the citation list to yourself or your colleagues then take a look at our full citation database.

63 results:

Fatty acid composition and δ13C isotopic ratio characterisation of pumpkin seed oil
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis (2016)
Tanja Potočnik, Nives Ogrinc, Doris Potočnik, Iztok Jože Košir

This study aimed to verify the authenticity and geographical origin of pumpkin seed oil using chemical analysis by gas chromatography (GC) and isotopic characterisation by gas chromatography combustion stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) combined with chemometric analysis. Thirty-eight pumpkin seed samples from various parts of the world were collected and authentic oils were prepared. Pumpkin seed oils are highly unsaturated, oleic acid varies from 26.8 to 43.6% and the content of linoleic acid is between 37.2 and 54.9%. The average δ13C values of the main fatty acids are −29.2±1.2‰, −30.3±1.6‰, −27.9±1.7‰ and −28.1±1.7‰ for C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, respectively. To determine adulteration, rapeseed, sunflower and soybean oil, were added to pumpkin seed oil in varying percentages (1–10%). A 100% correct classification of both geographical and botanical origin was achieved based on the composition and δ13C values of fatty acids. Principal component analysis (PCA) and regularised discriminant analysis (RDA) analysis gave comparable results.

Improved Discrimination for Brassica Vegetables Treated with Agricultural Fertilizers Using a Combined Chemometric Approach
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2016)
Yuwei Yuan, Guixian Hu, Tianjin Chen, Ming Zhao, Yongzhi Zhang, Yong Li, Xiahong Xu, Shengzhi Shao, Jiahong Zhu, Qiang Wang, Karyne M. Rogers

Multielement and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N, δ2H, δ18O, 207Pb/206Pb, and 208Pb/206Pb) analyses were combined to provide a new chemometric approach to improve the discrimination between organic and conventional Brassica vegetable production. Different combinations of organic and conventional fertilizer treatments were used to demonstrate this authentication approach using Brassica chinensis planted in experimental test pots. Stable isotope analyses (δ15N and δ13C) of B. chinensis using elemental analyzer–isotope ratio mass spectrometry easily distinguished organic and chemical fertilizer treatments. However, for low-level application fertilizer treatments, this dual isotope approach became indistinguishable over time. Using a chemometric approach (combined isotope and elemental approach), organic and chemical fertilizer mixes and low-level applications of synthetic and organic fertilizers were detectable in B. chinensis and their associated soils, improving the detection limit beyond the capacity of indivi...
Tags: carbon , nitrogen , oxygen , food , soil , elem

Improved Discrimination of Brassica Vegetables treated with Agricultural Fertilizers Using a Combined Chemometric Approach
(2016)
Yuwei Yuan, Guixian Hu, Tianjin Chen, Ming Zhao, Yongzhi Zhang, Yong Li, Xiahong Xu, Shengzhi Shao, Jiahong Zhu, Qiang Wang, Karyne M. Rogers

Multi-element and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N, δ2H, δ18O, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) analyses were combined to provide a new chemometric approach to improve the discrimination between organic and conventional Brassica vegetable production. Different combinations of organic and conventional fertilizer treatments were used to demonstrate this authentication approach using Brassica chinensis (B. chinensis) planted in experimental test pots. Stable isotope analyses (δ15N and δ13C) of B. chinensis using elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) easily distinguished organic and chemical fertilizer treatments. However, for low level application fertilizer treatments, this dual isotope approach became indistinguishable over time. Using a chemometric approach (combined isotope and elemental approach), organic and chemical fertilizer mixes and low level applications of synthetic and organic fertilizers were detectable in B. Chinensis and their associated soils, improving the detection limit beyo...
Tags: carbon , nitrogen , food , soil , elem

Improved Discrimination for Brassica Vegetables Treated with Agricultural Fertilizers Using a Combined Chemometric Approach
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2016)
Yuwei Yuan, Guixian Hu, Tianjin Chen, Ming Zhao, Yongzhi Zhang, Yong Li, Xiahong Xu, Shengzhi Shao, Jiahong Zhu, Qiang Wang, Karyne M. Rogers

Multielement and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N, δ2H, δ18O, 207Pb/206Pb, and 208Pb/206Pb) analyses were combined to provide a new chemometric approach to improve the discrimination between organic and conventional Brassica vegetable production. Different combinations of organic and conventional fertilizer treatments were used to demonstrate this authentication approach using Brassica chinensis planted in experimental test pots. Stable isotope analyses (δ15N and δ13C) of B. chinensis using elemental analyzer–isotope ratio mass spectrometry easily distinguished organic and chemical fertilizer treatments. However, for low-level application fertilizer treatments, this dual isotope approach became indistinguishable over time. Using a chemometric approach (combined isotope and elemental approach), organic and chemical fertilizer mixes and low-level applications of synthetic and organic fertilizers were detectable in B. chinensis and their associated soils, improving the detection limit beyond the capacity of indivi...
Tags: carbon , nitrogen , oxygen , food , soil , elem

Arboreal Legume Litter Nutrient Contribution to a Tropical Silvopasture
Agronomy Journal (2016)
Valéria Xavier de Oliveira Apolinário, José Carlos Batista Dubeux, Mário de Andrade Lira, Everardo V. S. B. Sampaio, Silvânia Oliveira de Amorim, Nalígia Gomes de Miranda e Silva, James P. Muir

Legumes contribute to pasture sustainability through symbiotic N2 fixation, which may increase primary productivity and animal performance in low-input systems. Litterfall is the main way of cycling nutrients from tree legumes. We quantified gliricidia [Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp.] and sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth) litter deposition, along two 336-d cycles, in a signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) pasture. Litterfall was produced throughout the year but concentrated in the dry season. Sabiá produced slightly greater (P < 0.0001) litterfall amounts in the two cycles (10,790 kg ha–1) than gliricidia (10,420 kg ha–1) but the overall average N concentration of gliricidia (21.5 g kg–1) was greater than that of sabiá (18.8 g kg–1). Nitrogen amounts cycled through the litter were greater for gliricidia in both cycles (105 and 109 kg N ha–1) than for sabiá (87 and 98 kg N ha–1). The proportions of litter N that were derived from the atmosphere by symbiotic fixation were similar (P ≥ 0.05) in both species (55%) and varied little along the two cycles. Lignin concentration, which influences decomposition, was similar in both species, averaging 238 and 214 g kg–1 in the two cycles for gliricidia and 233 and 246 g kg–1 for sabiá. Greater N concentration, lower C/N ratio and lower lignin concentration indicate that gliricidia litter may have a faster cycling rate than sabiá litter. Sabiá could be a more promising species for soil cover and protection because of its slower litter decomposition rate.

Classification of nine malathion emulsion samples by using carbon isotope ratios and the ratio of organic solvents
Science & Justice (2016)
Nana Suto, Hiroto Kawashima

The compound specific isotope analysis is nowadays an important and powerful tool in geochemical, environmental and forensics field. On November 2013, Aqli Foods Corporation in Japan dealt with complaints about stench from frozen foods produced. Subsequently, very high concentrations of organophosphorus pesticide as malathion, ethylbenzene and xylene were detected in recovered frozen foods. In particular case, we present the method to measure the stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of nine malathion emulsion pesticides using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) to identify the source. The δ13C values of malathion ranged from −30.6‰ to −29.5‰. Because malathion used in all malathion emulsions sold in Japan is imported from the same overseas company, Cheminova, Denmark. The δ13C values of ethylbenzene ranged from −28.2‰ to −20.8‰ and those of m,p-xylene from −28.7‰ to −25.2‰. The differences in the δ13C values may be because of the material itself and chemical processing. We also determined the ratio of ethylbenzene to m,p-xylene and finally categorized the nine malathion samples into five groups on the basis of this ratio and the δ13C values of ethylbenzene and m,p-xylene. The results of isotopic fractionation during volatilization (refrigerate, room temperature and incubator) was negligible small.

Effects of region, genotype, harvest year and their interactions on δ(13)C, δ(15)N and δD in wheat kernels.
Food chemistry (2015)
Hongyan Liu, Boli Guo, Yimin Wei, Shuai Wei, Yiyan Ma, Wan Zhang

The objective of this study was to investigate the influences of region, genotype, harvest year and their interactions on stable carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen isotopic ratio (δ(13)C, δ(15)N and δD) fingerprints in wheat kernels. A total of 270 wheat kernel samples including ten genotypes were collected from three different regions of China during 2011-2013 harvest. Analysis of variance was employed to investigate the effects of region, genotype, harvest year and their interactions on the δ(13)C, δ(15)N and δD. The results showed that the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in wheat kernels were significantly influenced by the region, genotype, harvest year and their interactions (region×genotype, genotype×year, region×year and region×genotype×year), δD was significantly affected by region, genotype, harvest year and region×year. Region accounted for the largest proportion of the total variation and explained 47.57%, 58.02% and 27.96% for δ(13)C, δ(15)N and δD, respectively.
Tags: carbon , hydrogen , nitrogen , food , elem

Applicability of stable C and N isotope analysis in inferring the geographical origin and authentication of commercial fish (Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock).
Food chemistry (2015)
Heejoong Kim, K Suresh Kumar, Kyung-Hoon Shin

Globalisation of seafood and aquaculture products and their convenient marketing worldwide, increases the possibility for the distribution of mislabelled products; thereby, underlining the need to identify their origin. Stable isotope analysis is a promising approach to identify the authenticity and traceability of seafood and aquaculture products. In this investigation, we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of three commercial fish, viz. Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock, originating from various countries. Apart from the species-dependent variation in the isotopic values, marked differences in the δ(13)C and δ(15)N ratios were also observed with respect to the country of origin. This suggests that C and N isotopic signatures could be reliable tools to identify and trace the origin of commercial fish.
Tags: carbon , nitrogen , food , elem

A triple-isotope approach for discriminating the geographic origin of Asian sesame oils.
Food chemistry (2015)
Hyeonjin Jeon, Sang-Cheol Lee, Yoon-Jae Cho, Jae-Ho Oh, Kisung Kwon, Byung Hee Kim

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the geographic location and climatic characteristics of the sesame-producing sites on the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope ratios of Korean sesame oil. In addition, the study aimed to differentiate Korean sesame oil from Chinese and Indian sesame oils using isotopic data in combination with canonical discriminant analysis. The isotopic data were obtained from 84 roasted oil samples that were prepared from 51 Korean, 19 Chinese, and 14 Indian sesame seeds harvested during 2010-2011 and distributed in Korea during the same period. The δ(13)C, δD, and δ(18)O values of Korean sesame oil were negatively correlated with latitude, distance from the sea, and precipitation (May-September), respectively. By applying two canonical discriminant functions, 89.3% of the sesame oil samples were correctly classified by their geographic origin, indicating that the triple-isotope approach is a useful tool for the traceability of the oils.
Tags: carbon , hydrogen , oxygen , food , elem

Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in body fluid compartments of dairy cattle according to season, farm, breed, and reproductive stage.
PloS one (2015)
Fabio Abeni, Francesca Petrera, Maurizio Capelletti, Aldo Dal Prà, Luana Bontempo, Agostino Tonon, Federica Camin

Environmental temperature affects water turnover and isotope fractionation by causing water evaporation from the body in mammals. This may lead to rearrangement of the water stable isotope equilibrium in body fluids. We propose an approach to detect possible variations in the isotope ratio in different body fluids on the basis of different homoeothermic adaptations in varying reproductive stages. Three different reproductive stages (pregnant heifer, primiparous lactating cow, and pluriparous lactating cow) of two dairy cattle breeds (Italian Friesian and Modenese) were studied in winter and summer. Blood plasma, urine, faecal water, and milk were sampled and the isotope ratios of H (2H/1H) and O (18O/16O) were determined. Deuterium excess and isotope-fractionation factors were calculated for each passage from plasma to faeces, urine and milk. The effects of the season, reproductive stages and breed on δ2H and δ18O were significant in all the fluids, with few exceptions. Deuterium excess was affected by season in all the analysed fluids. The correlations between water isotope measurements in bovine body fluids ranged between 0.6936 (urine-milk) and 0.7848 (urine-plasma) for δ2H, and between 0.8705 (urine-milk) and 0.9602 (plasma-milk) for δ18O. The increase in both isotopic δ values in all body fluids during summer is representative of a condition in which fractionation took place as a consequence of a different ratio between ingested and excreted water, which leads to an increased presence of the heavy isotopes. The different body water turnover between adult lactating cattle and non-lactating heifers was confirmed by the higher isotopic δ for the latter, with a shift in the isotopic equilibrium towards values more distant from those of drinking water.
Tags: hydrogen , oxygen , food , gashead