• UNDERSTAND

    Trophic Positions

  • UNDERSTAND

    Animal Migration Patterns

  • UNDERSTAND

    Soil Microbial Ecology

Ökologie

Die Stabilisotopenanalyse einer Vielzahl von Materialien im Bereich der Ökologie erlaubt es Forschern, Informationen zu gewinnen, die mit anderen analytischen Methoden nicht erzielt werden können. Stabile Isotope werden von Ökologen häufig als Tracer in biologischen Systemen eingesetzt, um Elementkreisläufe in einem Ökosystem nachzuvollziehen. Variationen in der Isotopensignatur in unterschiedlichen geographischen Regionen erlauben es, Isotopen als Tracer für Migration zu nutzen, während mit Hilfe des Prinzips der Isotopenfraktionierung biogeochemische Prozesse in einer solchen Detailgenauikgeit analysiert werden können, die von der Betrachtung der Elementzusammensetzung alleine nicht erreicht werden kann.

So können z.B. Kohlenstoffisotope genutzt werden, um die Primärenergiequelle in einem Ökosystem zu bestimmen, wohingegen Stickstoffisotope nützlich sind, um die trophische Ebene eines Organismus zu identifizieren. Schwefelisotope können benthische Produzenten von pelagischen unterscheiden, ebenso wie Sumpfpflanzen von Phytoplanktonproduzenten.

Die Entwicklung unseres Verständnisses dieser immanenten Beziehungen zwischen lebenden Organismen und ihrer Umgebung durch die Stabilisotopenanalyse unterstützt unseren sorgfältigen Umgang mit der natürlichen Welt um zu gewährleisten, dass künftige Generationen die gleichen Wunder erleben wie wir heute.

Publikationen zum Thema Ökologie mit unseren Geräten

Unsere Kunden nutzen unsere Geräte für erstaunliche Forschungsprojekte im Bereich der Ökologie. Um Ihnen zu zeigen, wie unsere Kunden ihre Forschung durchführen und wie unsere IRMS-Geräte eingesetzt werden, haben wir eine Reihe von Fachpublikationen gesammelt, die unsere Produkte namentlich nennen. Die Informationen zu diesen Fachartikeln finden Sie unten. Durch Klicken auf den Link werden Sie zur Website des jeweiligen Zeitschriftenverlags weitergeleitet, wo Sie die Publikation herunterladen können.

Wenn Sie unsere Publikationsdatenbank durchsuchen möchten oder die Liste der Ergebnisse an sich selbst oder an Ihre Kollegen mailen möchten, dann werfen Sie einen Blick auf unsere gesamte Publikationsdatenbank.

155 Ergebnisse:

Records of bulk organic matter and plant pigments in sediment of the “red-tide zone” adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology (2016)
Zhenjun Kang, Rencheng Yu, Fanzhou Kong, Yunfeng Wang, Yan Gao, Jianhua Chen, Wei Guo, Mingjiang Zhou

Cultural eutrophication caused by nutrient over-enrichment in coastal waters will lead to a cascading set of ecosystem changes and deleterious ecological consequences, such as harmful algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxia. During the past two decades since the late 1990s, recurrent large-scale HABs (red tides) and an extensive hypoxic zone have been reported in the coastal waters adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary. To retrieve the history of eutrophication and its associated ecosystem changes, a sediment core was collected from the “red-tide zone” adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary. The core was dated using the 210Pb radioisotope and examined for multiple proxies, including organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), stable isotopes of C and N, and plant pigments. An apparent up-core increase of OC content was observed after the 1970s, accompanied by a rapid increase of TN. The concurrent enrichment of δ13C and increase of the C/N ratio suggested the accumulation of organic matter derived from marine primary production during this stage. The accumulation of OC after the 1970s well reflected the significant increase of primary production in the red-tide zone and probably the intensification of hypoxia as well. Plant pigments, including chlorophyll a, β-carotene, and diatoxanthin, showed similar patterns of variation to OC throughout the core, which further confirmed the important contribution of microalgae, particularly diatoms, to the deposited organic matter. Based on the variant profiles of the pigments representative of different microalgal groups, the potential changes of the phytoplankton community since the 1970s were discussed.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , ecol , ocea , poll , elem

An isotope (δ 34 S) filter and geolocator results constrain a dual feather isoscape (δ 2 H, δ 13 C) to identify the wintering grounds of North American Barn Swallows
The Auk (2016)
Keith A. Hobson, Kevin J. Kardynal

ABSTRACT The discovery of spatial patterns in naturally occurring isotopes (e.g., δ2H, δ13C) at continental scales has been tremendously important in providing a method to infer potential breeding and wintering origins of migratory animals through assignment to tissue-specific isoscapes. Single-isotope (i.e. δ2H) assignments of birds to molting origins in South America have been limited by the lack of strong spatial gradients in precipitation δ2H there. We integrated an mvnpdf (multivariate normal probability density function) approach using δ2H and δ13C values in tail feathers to determine wintering origins of adult Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica) breeding in eastern Canada (n = 208). Spatial assignments were conducted using precipitation (δ2H) and theoretical plant-based (δ13C) isoscapes for South America calibrated for feathers of Nearctic–Neotropical migrant songbirds. We also measured feather δ34S values of Barn Swallows equipped with geolocators (n = 9) and of a larger group of Barn Swallows (n = 12...
Schlagworte: carbon , hydrogen , sulfur , ecol , elem

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF SEASONAL PATTERNS RECORDED IN THE OXYGEN ISOTOPE COMPOSITIONS OF THEROPOD DINOSAUR TOOTH ENAMEL
PALAIOS (2016)
JEAN GOEDERT, ROMAIN AMIOT, LARBI BOUDAD, ERIC BUFFETAUT, FRANÇOIS FOUREL, PASCAL GODEFROIT, NAO KUSUHASHI, VARAVUDH SUTEETHORN, HAIYAN TONG, MAHITO WATABE, CHRISTOPHE LÉCUYER

Oxygen isotope compositions of tooth enamel increments in theropod dinosaurs are investigated as potential proxies of climate seasonality. Six teeth of large carnivorous theropods collected from four Cretaceous formations deposited under contrasted climates have been sampled. These teeth have been analyzed for the oxygen isotope compositions of their apatite phosphate ({delta}18Op) through incremental sampling performed along the major growth axis. Significant fluctuations in oxygen isotope compositions along the growth axis of each tooth are observed and interpreted as reflecting seasonality in ingested local surface water {delta}18Ow values. Fluctuations in {delta}18Op values of theropod teeth from the Aptian of Thailand and Cenomanian of Morocco vary similarly to meteoric water {delta}18Omw values occurring today in sub-tropical regions subjected to large seasonal amounts of precipitations. A dinosaur tooth recovered from the more inland and mid-latitude Nemegt Formation of Mongolia shows a seasonal pattern similar to present-day cold temperate and continental climate. Finally, the high latitude and coastal Kakanaut Formation (Russia) experienced strongly dampened seasonal variations, most likely due to the influence of warm Pacific oceanic currents. Such conditions occur today in high latitude regions submitted to marine influence. These results further highlight the potential of using the oxygen isotope compositions of large theropod teeth to reconstruct past seasonal variations of terrestrial climates. Increased knowledge of past seasonality may help to better understand the complex interactions between climate and the dynamics of land biodiversity in terms of ecological adaptations, biogeography and the evolutionary history of organisms.
Schlagworte: oxygen , geol , ecol , clim , elem

Preliminary analysis of beak stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) stock variation of neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, in the North Pacific Ocean
Fisheries Research (2016)
Zhou Fang, Katherine Thompson, Yue Jin, Xinjun Chen, Yong Chen

Stable isotopes (13C and 15N) have been confirmed as a useful tool for understanding trophic position and related dietary variation in squid. In this study, we performed isotopic analysis on Ommastrephes bartramii beaks to examine differences between the eastern and western stocks in the North Pacific Ocean. Isotopic values of the upper beak (UB) and the lower beak (LB) were also compared. A generalized additive model (GAM) was used to select variables that explain stock variation. Isotopic signatures (δ13C and δ15N) were significantly different between the two stocks whereas there was no difference in C/N ratios. All isotopic values were significantly different between the UB and LB. Trophic niche width was distinct between two stocks with little overlap. The δ13C signature increased with latitude and mantle length (ML) with greater variability in the eastern stock. None of the variables could explain the variation in δ13C values for the western stock. The δ15N signature increased rapidly with ML in the eastern stock, whereas δ15N gradually increased with latitude and ML in the western stock. The isotopic variations can be successfully explained by different migration patterns and feeding behaviors of the two stocks. The δ13C and δ15N values of the UB were lower than those of the LB, possibly due to variable chitin/protein ratios at different developmental stages. Future studies should account for a greater sample size and the functionality of the UB.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , ecol , elem

Contrasted accumulation patterns of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in sympatric tropical dolphins from the south-western Indian Ocean
Environmental Research (2016)
Alin C. Dirtu, Govindan Malarvannan, Krishna Das, Violaine Dulau-Drouot, Jeremy J. Kiszka, Gilles Lepoint, Philippe Mongin, Adrian Covaci

Due to their high trophic position and long life span, small cetaceans are considered as suitable bioindicators to monitor the presence of contaminants in marine ecosystems. Here, we document the contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and total mercury (T-Hg) of spinner (Stenella longirostris, n =21) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus, n=32) sampled from the coastal waters of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean). In addition, seven co-occurring teleost fish species were sampled and analyzed as well. Blubber samples from living dolphins and muscle from teleosts were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and metabolites (DDTs), chlordanes (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), reported as having a natural origin, were also analyzed. T-Hg levels were measured in blubber and skin biopsies of the two dolphin species. Stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N values were determined in skin of the dolphins and in the muscle of teleosts. For PCBs, HCHs and T-Hg, concentrations were significantly higher in T. aduncus than in S. longirostris. For other POP levels, intra-species variability was high. MeO-PBDEs were the dominant compounds (55% of the total POPs) in S. longirostris, while PCBs dominated (50% contribution) in T. aduncus. Other contaminants showed similar profiles between the two species. Given the different patterns of POPs and T-Hg contamination and the δ15N values observed among analyzed teleosts, dietary and foraging habitat preferences most likely explain the contrasted contaminant profiles observed in the two dolphin species. Levels of each class of contaminants were significantly higher in males than females. Despite their spatial and temporal overlap in the waters of La Réunion, S. longirostris and T. aduncus are differently exposed to contaminant accumulation.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , ecol , ocea , poll , elem

Plasticity in foraging behaviour and diet buffers effects of inter-annual environmental differences on chick growth and survival in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome
Polar Biology (2016)
Nina Dehnhard, Katrin Ludynia, Juan F. Masello, Christian C. Voigt, Rona A. R. McGill, Petra Quillfeldt

In marine ecosystems, primary productivity and consequently food availability for higher trophic levels are often strongly affected by the water temperature. Thus, differences in sea surface temperatures (SST) may lead to differences in the diet composition of predators, but this link is still unknown in many species. By combining GPS tracking and dive analyses on chick-rearing southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) with stable isotope analyses and monitoring of chick growth rates and chick survival, we here attempted a comprehensive assessment of the effects of inter-annual environmental variability as indicated by SST and chlorophyll a (reflecting primary productivity) data. Inter-annual differences in environmental variables around our study colony on New Island, Falkland/Malvinas Islands, contradicted the general expectation, with higher chlorophyll a concentrations coinciding with higher spring SST in 2010/2011 compared to 2009/2010. Penguins foraged further away from the colony during guard and crèche in 2010/2011 compared to 2009/2010, while performing deeper dives in 2009/2010. Stable isotope mixing models suggested a crustacean-dominated chick diet in 2009/2010, compared to a mixture of squid and fish in 2010/2011. These differences in foraging behaviour and diet, however, had no consequences for chick growth rates or chick survival and thus had no apparent effect on population trajectories. Potentially, environmental conditions in both years could still be seen as favourable compared to other years and breeding sites, enabling the parental birds to buffer the environmental differences by plastic foraging behaviour.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , ecol , elem

Caribbean Spiny Lobster Fishery Is Underpinned by Trophic Subsidies from Chemosynthetic Primary Production
Current Biology (2016)
Nicholas D. Higgs, Jason Newton, Martin J. Attrill

The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is one of the most valuable fisheries commodities in the Central American region, directly employing 50,000 people and generating >US$450 million per year [1]. This industry is particularly important to small island states such as The Bahamas, which exports more lobster than any other country in the region [1]. Several factors contribute to this disproportionally high productivity, principally the extensive shallow-water banks covered in seagrass meadows [2], where fishermen deploy artificial shelters for the lobsters to supplement scarce reef habitat [3]. The surrounding seabed communities are dominated by lucinid bivalve mollusks that live among the seagrass root system [4, 5]. These clams host chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts in their gills that synthesize organic matter using reduced sulfur compounds, providing nutrition to their hosts [6]. Recent studies have highlighted the important role of the lucinid clam symbiosis in maintaining the health and productivity of seagrass ecosystems [7, 8], but their biomass also represents a potentially abundant, but as yet unquantified, food source to benthic predators [9]. Here we undertake the first analysis of Caribbean spiny lobster diet using a stable isotope approach (carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) and show that a significant portion of their food (∼20% on average) is obtained from chemosynthetic primary production in the form of lucinid clams. This nutritional pathway was previously unrecognized in the spiny lobster’s diet, and these results are the first empirical evidence that chemosynthetic primary production contributes to the productivity of commercial fisheries stocks.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , sulfur , ecol , elem

Effects of biocontrol with an atyid shrimp (Caridina denticulata) and a bagrid catfish (Pseudobagrus fulvidraco) on toxic cyanobacteria bloom (Microcystis aeruginosa) in a eutrophic agricultural reservoir
Paddy and Water Environment (2016)
Min-Seob Kim, Yeonjung Lee, Seongjin Hong, Soon-Jin Hwang, Baik-Ho Kim, Kwang-Guk An, Young-Seuk Park, Sang-Kyu Park, Han-Yong Um, Kyung-Hoon Shin

The biocontrol effects of Caridina denticulata, an atyid shrimp, on toxic cyanobacterial bloom (Microcystis aeruginosa) were evaluated in a mesocosm study with stable isotope tracers (13C and 15N) in a eutrophic agricultural reservoir. The accumulated assimilation (at.%) of M. aeruginosa into C. denticulata was increased, causing a significant reduction in the concentration of Chlorophyll-a. The ingestion rate of M. aeruginosa by C. denticulata was influenced by predation pressure exerted by bagrid catfish Pseudobagrus fulvidraco and was dependent on biomass ratio. C. denticulata affected zooplankton density, species composition, and ingestion rate, demonstrating that the number of small-sized cladocerans (Bosmina coregoni and Bosmina longispina) increased because they grazed M. aeruginosa for a food source. This study suggests that C. denticulata and P. fulvidraco can be feasible material to control a nuisance M. aeruginosa bloom in eutrophic agricultural reservoir.
Schlagworte: carbon , nitrogen , soil , ecol , poll , elem

Methane fates in the benthos and water column at cold seep sites along the continental margin of Central and North America
Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers (2016)
Roberta L. Hansman, Andrew R. Thurber, Lisa A. Levin, Lihini I. Aluwihare

The potential influence of methane seeps on carbon cycling is a key question for global assessments, but the study of carbon cycling in surface sediments and the water column of cold seep environments is complicated by the high temporal and spatial variability of fluid and gas fluxes at these sites. In this study we directly examined carbon sources supporting benthic and planktonic food webs at venting methane seeps using isotopic and molecular approaches that integrate this variability. At four seep environments located along North and Central America, microorganisms from two size fractions were collected over several days from 2800 to 9050l of seawater to provide a time-integrated measure of key microbial groups and the carbon sources supporting the overall planktonic microbial community. In addition to water column measurements, the extent of seafloor methane release was estimated at two of the sites by examining the stable carbon isotopic signature (δ13C) of benthic metazoan infauna. This signature reveals carbon sources fueling the base of the food chain and thus provides a metric that represents a time-integrated view of the dominant microbial processes within the sediment. The stable carbon isotopic composition of microbial DNA (δ13C-DNA), which had values between −17.0 and −19.5‰, indicated that bulk planktonic microbial production was not ultimately linked to methane or other 13C-depleted seep-derived carbon sources. Instead these data support the importance of organic carbon derived from either photo- or chemoautotrophic CO2 fixation to the planktonic food web. Results of qPCR of microbial DNA sequences coding for a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase gene (pmoA) showed that only a small percentage of the planktonic microbial community were potential methane oxidizers possessing pmoA (<5% of 16S rRNA gene copies). There was an overall decrease of 13C-depleted carbon fueling the benthic metazoan community from 3 to 5cm below the seafloor to the sediment surface, reflecting limited use of isotopically depleted carbon at the sediment surface. Rare methane emission as indicated by limited aerobic methane oxidation acts to corroborate our findings for the planktonic microbial community.

Methane fates in the benthos and water column at cold seep sites along the continental margin of Central and North America
Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers (2016)
Roberta L. Hansman, Andrew R. Thurber, Lisa A. Levin, Lihini I. Aluwihare

The potential influence of methane seeps on carbon cycling is a key question for global assessments, but the study of carbon cycling in surface sediments and the water column of cold seep environments is complicated by the high temporal and spatial variability of fluid and gas fluxes at these sites. In this study we directly examined carbon sources supporting benthic and planktonic food webs at venting methane seeps using isotopic and molecular approaches that integrate this variability. At four seep environments located along North and Central America, microorganisms from two size fractions were collected over several days from 2800 to 9050l of seawater to provide a time-integrated measure of key microbial groups and the carbon sources supporting the overall planktonic microbial community. In addition to water column measurements, the extent of seafloor methane release was estimated at two of the sites by examining the stable carbon isotopic signature (δ13C) of benthic metazoan infauna. This signature reveals carbon sources fueling the base of the food chain and thus provides a metric that represents a time-integrated view of the dominant microbial processes within the sediment. The stable carbon isotopic composition of microbial DNA (δ13C-DNA), which had values between −17.0 and −19.5‰, indicated that bulk planktonic microbial production was not ultimately linked to methane or other 13C-depleted seep-derived carbon sources. Instead these data support the importance of organic carbon derived from either photo- or chemoautotrophic CO2 fixation to the planktonic food web. Results of qPCR of microbial DNA sequences coding for a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase gene (pmoA) showed that only a small percentage of the planktonic microbial community were potential methane oxidizers possessing pmoA (<5% of 16S rRNA gene copies). There was an overall decrease of 13C-depleted carbon fueling the benthic metazoan community from 3 to 5cm below the seafloor to the sediment surface, reflecting limited use of isotopically depleted carbon at the sediment surface. Rare methane emission as indicated by limited aerobic methane oxidation acts to corroborate our findings for the planktonic microbial community.